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Facing Reality and Addressing Causes面对现实 解决问题

By Zivadin Jovanovic,  President of the Belgrade Forum for a World of Equals (Beoforum) and the Silk Road Connectivity Research Center (COREC)
文|日瓦丁·约万诺维奇(Zivadin Jovanovic)   贝尔格莱德平等世界论坛、丝绸之路互联互通研究中心主席        翻译|王晓波

导读

在全球变化的这个阶段,至关重要的是必须认识到,对于人类的未来,统治、霸权主义和排斥的时代已经结束,包容性对话、伙伴关系和共赢合作才是人类走向繁荣的必然

世界正在经历历史性的变化

面临新旧挑战  世界各国应加强对话与合作

中国在全球事务中发挥了建设性作用

中塞携手务实合作

 

 

The world is undergoing historic changes. The most of the world nations strive to the world of sovereign equality, non-interference in internal affairs, freedom of choice of the path of development, equal opportunities and win win cooperation. In fact, they want democratic world order based on the international law equally applicable to all members of the world community, be they developed and militarily strong, or not. On the other side, western power centers representing smaller number of nations and countries, but being highly developed and military strong, have been trying to stop the trend of democratization of the world relations, to expand economically, militarily and in all other aspects, to impose their neoliberal, corporative system to everybody disregarding any specifities . In fact, they have been trying to impose their interests to the most of the world, to perpetuate privileges and hegemonism reinstating uni-polar World Order. Western power centers which have been used over decades to create realities by provoking illegal military aggressions all over the world nowadays pretend to disregard new realities brought about through peaceful development. Their shortsightedness and irrational resistance to inevitable historic changes is the source of the most serious dangers facing the mankind today.

The best for the world would be to openly look to the real causes of the present global tensions, conflicts and to address them in a responsible way. Arrogance, militarization, games threatening with use of nuclear armament, rounds of unilateral sanctions, alignments, exclusions could hardly lead to any wise and reasonable way out of the present turmoil and uncertainty. The world has not got rid of the consequences of previous recessions, yet global economy has already entered new one, much worse than any previous in the period after the Second World War. Energy crises, two digit inflation, food crises, galloping cost of living are already part of new trends and reality. Hundreds of thousands of small and medium size companies in the EU have already been closed, announcing loses, unemployment, poverty, hardships. We are watching rivers of tens of thousands of people protesting in the streets of major cities in Germany, Czech Republic, Italy and other countries because of rising cost of living. Socio-economic problems are accompanied by radicalization of political scene. Recent changes of the governments in Italy, Sweden, Baltic Republics and other countries show deepening of socio-political divisions and rise of the radical right. Resistance to oiling the conflict in Ucraine and rapid rise of military spending is also growing.

Some years ago, EU leaders proclaimed the policy of “Europe turning to herself”, to its interests, autonomy and identity. Not much has been achieved in this regard since 1999, when Europe made historic mistake submitting herself to USA pressure to take part in the military aggression against Yugoslavia which, in fact, was the war against Europe herself. Today, in spite of all earlier oaths of devotion to own interests, Europe’s autonomy in decision making, seems to be at the lowest level.  The time is yet to come which will bring new generations of leaders capable of gaining some real autonomy for Europe. In the meantime, the unity of EU could hardly advance. Energy, market and raw materials deficit will probably further hinder EU development and unity. Hungary’s leader Victor Orban has repeatedly called in public that EU sanctions against Russia be abolished if EU is to secure energy. Prime Minister Orban, certainly, is not alone among EU leaders, who do not believe in feasibility and rationality of sanctions, nor the sanctions are the only divisive issue. Military aid to Ukraine, looming new massive migration, particularly from Africa and energy crises may further hinder principle of consensus. After years of negligence toward the so called West Balkan (Serbia, North Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina), leading EU member countries (Germany, France) are engaged in seemingly new initiatives for stability and development. In addition to the Initiative called “Open Balkan” brought about by the leaders of Serbia, Albania and North Macedonia, Germany insists on own continuity and intensification initiative called “Berlin process”.

In May this year French president Emanuel Macron proposed establishment of European Political Community (EPC) as a new format of political dialogue and cooperation. The first EPC Summit was held in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, on October 5-6 with participation of 43 European and some Caucuses’ countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia). Illegally seceded Serbia’s autonomous province Kosovo and Metohija was represented (with reference to the UN SC resolution 1244), while, Russia and Belorussia have not been invited.  Plenary and panels sessions dealt on security in the light of the current conflict in Ukraine, sanctions, cooperation  in energy, infrastructure connectivity, new massive migration crises and other common challenges. No documents or decisions have been taken except that the new EPC summit will be convened next year in some other country.

Promoting dialogue and cooperation in this turbulent period full of some old some new challenges, looming global crises and uncertainties is certainly much needed and positive orientation. However, to be productive, dialogue should address causes of turbulences, challenges and crises. Dialogue certainly should not aim at isolation of anybody, deepening of tranches, or at erecting new walls for global divisions. It is quite logic, for example, that energy crisis should be considered in dialogue and cooperation with energy producers (OPEC plus), sustainable solutions could hardly be reached through dictate of prices by consumers. Massive migration crises should be regarded as red light reminder for more intensive investments and development of underdeveloped countries, rather than through repressive measures and steel frontier walls. Equally, security and cooperation of Europe is unimaginable without dialogue and cooperation with Russia and Belorussia. At this stage of global changes it is of crucial importance for the future of humanity to understand that the era of domination, hegemonism and exclusiveness has ended and that inclusive dialogue, partnership and win win cooperation are inevitable for humanity to prosper.   

EU and USA have been pressing Serbia, for some time now, to reduce, if not completely abandon strategic partnership and cooperation with Russia and China, falsely claiming that those countries apparently spread “malign influence” over Serbia and the region. In fact, USA and EU pretend that the Balkan and Serbia are in their sphere of influence and consequently must follow their geostrategic interest, including their strategy of expansion to the East and “containment” of Russia and China. They claim that Serbia as EU candidate shares “same values“ with the West, that Serbia to qualify for EU membership should adhere and respect EU “common foreign and security policy”, that Serbia should stop importing Russiand and Chinese military equipment, that Serbia “naturally” belongs to the West, that Serbia sooner or later should be member of NATO and so on. These pressures and blackmails have been intensified recently with open demands that Serbia although only candidate for the EU membership, must join EU sanctions against Russia. Serbia has successfully resisted those pressures and blackmails which include, among others, threat of suspension of accession negotiations. This means, inter alia, that Serbia would lose some donations, soft loans, budget assistance for alleviating losses provoked by high cost of gas and alike. In addition, secessionists’ leadership in the Serbia’s Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija is completely under control of USA and EU and often exploited for additional pressures against Serbia and Serbs living there. On the occasion of China”s National Day, Serbia’s president Aleksandar Vucic has just declared that, in spite of all the pressures from the West, Serbia remains steady “steel friend” of China which has been supporting and helping Serbia in the most difficult periods. He said that Chinese companies in Serbia employ over 20.000 employees and rank among the largest Serbian exporters. He repeated invitation for a new state visit of the President Xi Jinping to Serbia.

One of the most serious consequences of the current disruption of lines of supply and trade will be food crisis hitting hard African, some Asian and other countries. Serbia has already made arrangements to supply certain African, as well as some other countries with wheat, maize and oil from own surplus production. In addition, Serbia’s seed producers have over years gained positive experiences from producing maize seed in Africa, especially in Zambia and Angola, which could be used and expanded now in cooperation with some other countries involved in development in Africa, such as, China, Russia and Brazil, for example. In parallel, there is need for additional efforts to supply fertilizers to the countries of Africa with basic natural conditions for maize, wheat and grain production.

Historic achievements of China conducting the CPC strategy of reform, opening up and innovative development  laid down firm and lasting foundations for a new journey toward its second centenary goal of building a modern socialist country in all respects, centered on new expectations of the people. Chinese path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, will steadily lead toward further modernization of China and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. At the same time, socio-economic, scientific, technologic and cultural achievements of China represent important contribution to building a community with a shared future for mankind and broaden global experiences. It is widely believed that China will continue to further advance in all fields and all aspects meeting the needs of own people and at the same time creating new opportunities for the world prosperity.

In 2021, China has completed the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and embarked on the great journey of developing China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and attractive. Going forward, China’s strategy of opening up and self-reform will, beyond any doubt, reach wider and go deeper to promote international cooperation towards a win-win result.

Chinese strategy on building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics has enabled China  unprecedented socio-economic, scientific, technological and cultural development. For decades now China has maintained the highest GDP rise, speedy implementation of the newest technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, including 5G, AI and green development. This strategy made China powerhouse of the development of Asia and the most important singular contributor to the rise of global GDP, greater than the contribution of EU, USA and Japan together. China has become the leader of global trade and the second strongest world economy. At the same time, China is unique country which has eliminated poverty of dozens of millions of own populations, and at the same time helping other nations in alleviating poverty. One of the newer illustrations of China’s solidarity and assistance to the poorest countries was the decision to waive 23 interest free loans to 17 African countries, due in 2021.

Thus, China has become shining example of constructive and responsible member of the world community approaching development and progress in interaction, cooperation and solidarity with other countries and other nations. If, more or less, all agree that peace and security are indivisible then, logically, all should agree that development and prosperity are indivisible too. If security of particular countries should not be provided on account of the security of others, the development and wellbeing of certain countries must not be based on account of the development and wellbeing of other countries, the least, through grabbing by force or illegal malpractices, of natural resources of less developed and militarily weaker countries. Lessons from the global financial and economic crises 2008-2012, from the struggle against Covid 19 pandemic, from imposition of unilateral sanctions, should not be forgotten, misunderstood nor misinterpreted: in the globally interconnected and interdependent world nobody is self-sufficient, exempted, almighty, isolated. Global calamities, challenges and goals in order to be resolved should be faced by global, coordinated approach. All should have learned by now that arrogance, erecting of new fences, curtains, walls or unilateral sanctions always do backfire.  

In this period of many global challenges, rising risks of confrontations and conflicts China reinforces its constructive efforts for dialogue, detente, and peaceful resolution of all disputes, for respect of international law and UN system. While certain international political, economic and military integrations have been intensifying narrative of militarization, confrontation, divisions and sanctions, China has been pursuing policy of dialogue, partnership, development, coordination and win win cooperation. BRICS summit in Beijing, in July this year and SCO Summit, in Samarkand, in September, constructive final documents adopted there are but two most significant and telling of the positive and responsible policy of China and her partners.  

Right of all nations to freely choose paths for own socio-economic and cultural development and the system of self-governance is one of the basic principle of peaceful coexistence. In practice, this means full respect of specificities of each nation, respect of particular history, culture, tradition and overall historic experiences. This approach is compatible with universal values of freedom, dignity and self-respect. If humanity is to exist and prosper there must not be any prescriptions from any side what path of development and what socio-economic system should be good for other nations. Freedom of choosing paths of socio-economic development cannot be replaced by readymade models, the least by the model of liberal corporative system which has clearly exhausted any possibility for progress of humanity.

Democracy is not commodity to be exported from and by the developed West, predominantly with colonial and neo-colonial records, to the developing nations of East and South of our planet. So called “color revolutions” presented by the western propaganda as “democratization” and “defense of human right”, in fact, have been bare tools of expansion of western domination and hegemonism. Real objectives of such “exporters” have always been to expand control and exploitation of natural and human resources (energy, strategic minerals, markets, and infrastructure) of other countries in order to provide extra-profit as the basis for perpetuation of less and less sustainable, multinational, corporative liberal system.  Even, if the “democracy” and “human rights” are taken for face value, one should try to see how these values function in daily practice of so called “democratic”, or “political West” which pretends to export them. In many of them racial, social and other forms of discrimination are systematic features and the democratic institutions, such as parliaments, for example, are reduced to mere rubber stamping places for decisions adopted by behind-the-scene, narrow groups, nowadays frequently dominated by military-industrial corporative sectors.  

China has become key factor in the struggle for just and inclusive world order based on full respect of sovereign equality of all nations as well as on the principal of noninterference in internal affairs of other countries. Respecting these principles in practice, China gained close friends and reliable partners in win-win cooperation all over the globe. In this regard, China, Russia and other countries of growing potentials for development became leaders of the new, multipolar, inclusive and just World Order.

Continuing to support the system of UN, which is vitally important for peace, security and development, China has become leading factor of new, democratic and inclusive institutions and organizations such as Shanghai Cooperation Organization, BRICS, New Development Bank, Asian Bank for Infrastructure Development. In the same direction, president of China and secretary general of CPC Xi Jinping presented in 2013 Global Belt and Road Initiative for the development of modern global infrastructure, global interconnectivity and global economic development along BRI. China+17 CEEC framework of cooperation became integral part of BRI. The BRI has become unique, inclusive global integration open to everybody without any restrictions or political preconditions. We believe that the forthcoming 20th CPC National Congress will reinforce BRI and China+17 CEEC framework of cooperation as the long term sustainable answer to the global development needs, socio-economic challenges including looming global economic recession. At the same time, BRI will continue to serve objectives of peace, peaceful solution of all problems, opposing any form of confrontation, domination or hegemonism.

Serbia and China are traditional friends and close partners in all spheres of bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation in general. They share same objectives of peace, dialogue and cooperation on the basis of equal mutual interest. They support each other in international forums, defending mutually basic principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and noninterference in internal affairs. Serbia supports One China policy considering Taiwan being integral part of Peoples Republic of China and China supports One Serbia policy with the province of Kosovo and Metohija being integral part of Serbia. In 2016, president Xi Jinping made historic state visit to Serbia which became a corner stone of Comprehensive strategic partnership between Serbia and China. Douzaines of intergovernmental agreements have been signed and since then implemented. Today, China is one of the most important partners of Serbia. Chinese companies run the largest steel work factory and the largest copper and gold mining in Serbia. They have constructed bridges, factories, power plants and hundreds of kilometers of modern highways interconnecting Serbia with other countries in the region. Chinese companies have been constructing high speed railway Belgrade-Budapest (Hungary), part of which (Belgrade-Novi Sad) has become operational this year. Two countries have abolished visa system in both directions and negotiations are under way to abolish customs tax by the end of this year. To further intensify people to people exchange, China has recently constructed in Belgrade the largest and the most beautiful Cultural Center in this part of Europe.

We recall great contribution of China to the global struggle against COVID-19 Pandemic. While still fighting to put pandemic under control in own country, Chinese government has been engaged in many countries around the world, especially in the developing countries, unselfishly helping them to control and stop expansion of pandemic. This was yet another great example of Chinese understanding and solidarity with other nations. Serbia will always remember great assistance and support of China in the period of pandemic. Chinese doctors and medical specialists had been working hand in hand with Serbian doctors allover Serbia saving lives of our citizens. We are grateful that two testing laboratories and one factory producing vaccines, have been supplied to Serbia by China.

China has become strategic partner of European Union regarding China+17 CEEC framework of cooperation as the bridge of economic, technological and cultural cooperation between Asia and Europe. This form of cooperation is mutually beneficial contributing to the alleviation of uneven economic and technological development between East and West Europe. Current instability in Europe should not be used to justify any slowdown of cooperation. Just the opposite, broader cooperation and stronger efforts to eliminate disruption of flow of goods – is in the common interest of China and Europe (EU), in the interest of removing causes of destabilization and of returning to normalization. In this regard, Serbia being active participant in China+17 CEEC framework of cooperation, will certainly play positive role.

Serbia and China do have similar approaches to the current destabilizing processes. Both of them support solution of all problems by peaceful means and dialogue which, in order to be successful, must address causes of instability. Both are against any form of expansionism, exclusivity and hegemonism. The New multipolar and democratic World Order has to be based on sovereign equality, territorial integrity and principals of peaceful coexistence. Both countries consider peace and security being indivisible foundations for global development and prosperity. To avoid broader conflicts, to return to 2030 UN Development Goals, the principal to equal security of all countries must be reinstated and fully respected in practice. New divisions, new blocs, new alignments, new curtains and walls could hardly be answers to the needs and strives of humanity.

In this regard, we attach the highest importance and fully support the Global Development Initiative (GDI) and the Global Security Initiative (GSI) of CPC Secretary General and President of the PR of China Xi Jinping. These Initiatives reflect essence of Chinese strategy of peace, inclusive development and cooperation. No doubt, they have aroused great hopes in the world community that further confrontation and risks of global conflict should and will be avoided. The best place to continue and reinforce such efforts is Organization of United Nations as the universal and irreplaceable peace and security forum. We all need stronger and more efficient UN system, and not a playground for abusive power politics.

 


 



世界正在经历历史性的变化

世界上大多数的国家都致力于实现一个主权平等、不干涉内政、自由选择发展道路、机会平等和合作共赢的世界。事实上,它们希望以国际法为基础的民主世界秩序能够平等地适用于国际社会的所有成员,无论它们是否发达或者军事强大。但是,另一方面,代表少数国家和民族,高度发达且军事实力强大的西方权力中心,一直在试图阻止世界关系民主化的趋势,他们在经济、军事和所有其他方面进行扩张,并将其新自由主义和公司制强加给每个国家,完全无视其他国家的特殊性。实际上,它们一直企图将自己的利益强加给世界上的大多数国家,以维护其特权地位和霸权主义,并且恢复单极世界秩序。几十年来,西方权力中心被用于通过在世界各地挑起非法军事侵略来制造现实,而如今,它们又假装无视和平发展所带来的新现实。它们对不可避免的历史变化的短视和非理性抵抗是当今人类面临的最严重危险的根源。

对世界来说,最应当的做法是毫不隐瞒地寻找造成目前全球紧张局势和冲突的真正原因,并以负责任的方式加以解决。几乎可以肯定,傲慢、军事化、威胁使用核武器的把戏、一轮又一轮的单边制裁、结盟和排斥无法提供任何明智和合理的方法来摆脱目前的动荡和不确定性。世界尚未摆脱以往衰退造成的后果,可是全球经济已经又一次陷入新的衰退,而且这一次比第二次世界大战后的任何一次衰退都要糟糕得多。能源危机、高达两位数的通货膨胀、粮食危机、飞涨的生活成本已经成为新趋势和现实的一部分。欧盟数十万家中小型公司已经关门,宣布亏损、失业、贫困和困难。我们看到成千上万的人在德国、捷克共和国、意大利和其他国家的主要城市的街道上抗议,因为生活费用不断上涨。社会经济问题伴随着政治舞台上的激进主义已经暴露出来了。意大利、瑞典、波罗的海共和国和其他国家最近出现的政府更迭也表明,社会政治分歧在加深,激进势力开始抬头。与此同时,针对为乌克兰冲突鼓劲和军事开支迅速增加的抵制也在增加。

多年前,欧盟领导人宣布了“欧洲自力更生”的政策,旨在维护其自身利益、自治和身份认同。可是自1999年以来,它在这方面取得的成就并不多。而且当时屈服于美国对其施加的压力,欧洲犯了历史性错误,介入了对南斯拉夫的军事侵略,事实上,这是对欧洲本身的战争。现在,尽管仍在强调所有早期的捍卫自身利益的誓言,但欧洲的决策自主权似乎已处于最低水平。新一代领导人能够获得一些真正的欧洲自治权的时机尚未到来,而且欧盟的团结也几乎无法推进。能源、市场和原材料的不足可能会进一步阻碍欧盟的发展和团结。匈牙利领导人维克托·欧尔班多次公开呼吁,如果欧盟想要确保能源安全,就应取消其对俄罗斯的制裁。显然,欧尔班总理并不是欧盟领导人中唯一不相信制裁的可行性和合理性的人,而且制裁也不是唯一引起分歧的争议。对乌克兰的军事援助、即将到来的新的大规模移民,特别是来自非洲的移民,以及能源危机都可能更加妨碍共识原则的达成。在多年来对所谓的西巴尔干半岛(塞尔维亚、北马其顿、阿尔巴尼亚、黑山、波黑)的忽视后,欧盟的主要成员国(德国、法国)正在采取看似新的稳定与发展举措。除了塞尔维亚、阿尔巴尼亚和北马其顿领导人提出的“开放巴尔干”倡议外,德国还坚持其自己的连续性和强化倡议,即“柏林进程”。

今年5月,法国总统伊曼纽尔·马克龙提议成立欧洲政治共同体(EPC),作为政治对话与合作的一种新形式。欧洲政治共同体的首次峰会于10月5日至6日在捷克共和国首都布拉格举行,43个欧洲国家和一些高加索国家(亚美尼亚、阿塞拜疆和格鲁吉亚)参加了峰会。非法脱离塞尔维亚的科索沃和梅托希亚自治省派代表出席了会议(根据联合国安理会第1244号决议),而俄罗斯和白俄罗斯却未受到邀请。全体会议和小组会议重点讨论了安全问题,包括乌克兰当前的冲突、制裁、能源合作、基础设施建设的连通性、新的大规模移民危机和其他共同面对的挑战。除了决定明年将在其他某个国家举行新的峰会外,会议没有形成任何文件或决议。

 

面临新旧挑战  世界各国应加强对话与合作

在这个充满新旧挑战、日益逼近的全球危机和不确定性的动荡时期,促进对话与合作无疑是非常必要的,也是积极的方向。然而,要想富有成效,对话应该解决造成动荡、挑战和危机的根源。对话绝不应该旨在孤立任何国家,加深分歧,或者针对全球出现的分歧而筑起新的高墙。这是非常合乎逻辑的,比方说,能源危机应该在与能源生产国(欧佩克等)的对话和合作中予以考虑,消费者很难通过控制价格来达成可持续的解决方案。大规模移民危机应被视为是对欠发达国家进行更密集投资并且促进其发展的红灯警示,而不是采取压制的措施和在边境筑起坚固的高墙。同样,如果没有俄罗斯和白俄罗斯的参与,欧洲的安全与合作是难以想象的。在全球变化的这个阶段,至关重要的是必须认识到,对于人类的未来,统治、霸权主义和排斥的时代已经结束,包容性对话、伙伴关系和共赢合作才是人类走向繁荣的必然。

一段时间以来,欧盟和美国一直在敦促塞尔维亚减少(如果不是完全放弃)与俄罗斯和中国的战略伙伴关系和合作,并错误地声称这些国家显然在塞尔维亚和该地区传播了“恶意影响”。事实上,美国和欧盟自称巴尔干和塞尔维亚处于它们的势力范围内,因此必须遵循其地缘战略利益,包括其向东方扩张和“遏制”俄罗斯和中国的战略。它们声称,作为欧盟申请国的塞尔维亚与西方有着“相同的价值观”,因此塞尔维亚若想加入欧盟就应坚持并尊重欧盟的“共同外交和安全政策”,塞尔维亚还应停止进口俄罗斯和中国的军事装备,而且塞尔维亚“天然”属于西方,塞尔维亚迟早会成为北约成员国,等等。这些压力和要挟一直在加剧,最近竟然公开要求塞尔维亚必须加入欧盟对俄罗斯的制裁,虽然塞尔维亚目前还只是欧盟的申请国。塞尔维亚成功地抵制了这些压力和要挟,其中包括暂停加入谈判的威胁。这意味着,除其他外,塞尔维亚将失去一些捐款、软贷款和预算援助,以减轻因天然气等高昂成本造成的损失。此外,塞尔维亚自治省科索沃和梅托希亚的分裂主义者领导人完全受到美国和欧盟的控制,经常被利用对塞尔维亚和居住在那里的塞族人施加额外的压力。在中国的国庆节即将来临之际,塞尔维亚总统亚历山大·武契奇刚刚宣布,尽管面临来自西方的所有压力,塞尔维亚仍然是中国坚定的“铁杆朋友”,因为中国在塞尔维亚最困难的时期一直给予其支持和帮助。他说,在塞尔维亚的中国公司雇用了超过20000名当地员工,而且中国是塞尔维亚最大的出口国之一。他还再次邀请中国国家主席习近平对塞尔维亚进行新的国事访问。

当前供应链和贸易链中断的一个最严重的后果将是粮食危机给非洲、一些亚洲国家和其他国家造成的严重打击。塞尔维亚已经作出安排,从其剩余生产中向某些非洲国家以及一些其他国家供应小麦、玉米和石油。此外,多年来,塞尔维亚的种子生产商们从非洲,特别是赞比亚和安哥拉,获得了生产玉米种子的正面经验,现在他们可以与中国、俄罗斯和巴西等参与非洲发展的其他国家合作,使用和推广这些种植方法。与此同时,还需要作出更多努力,向具备生产玉米、小麦和谷物的基本自然条件的非洲国家提供化肥。

 
中国在全球事务中发挥了建设性作用

中国实施中国共产党制定的改革开放和创新发展的战略取得了历史性的成就,这为以人民的新期待为中心,全面建设社会主义现代化国家的第二个百年目标奠定了坚实而持久的基础。中国建设的有中国特色社会主义的道路,将稳步引领中国进一步实现现代化和中华民族的复兴。与此同时,中国在社会经济、科学、技术和文化方面取得的成就为建设人类命运共同体和增进全球经验作出了重要贡献。人们普遍认为,中国将继续在各个领域、各个方面获得进一步发展,不仅可以满足本国人民的需要,同时也会为世界繁荣创造新的机遇。

2021年,中国已经全面建成了小康社会,同时开始了建设繁荣、强大、民主、文明、和谐、美丽的社会主义现代化国家的伟大征程。展望未来,中国开放和自我改革的战略无疑将向纵深发展,从而推动国际合作走向双赢。

中国建设有中国特色社会主义的战略,使中国的社会经济、科学技术和文化都得到了前所未有的发展。几十年来,中国一直保持着国内生产总值的高速增长,第四次工业革命的最新技术也得到了快速应用,包括5G、人工智能和绿色发展。这一战略使中国成为亚洲发展的强国,全球GDP增长的最重要的单一贡献者,其贡献超过了欧盟、美国和日本的总和。中国已经成为全球贸易的领导者和世界第二强大的经济体。同时,中国还是一个非常独特的国家,它不仅使自己国家数以千百万计的人口摆脱了贫困,还帮助其他国家减轻贫困。中国对最贫困国家的支持和援助的一个最新实证是它决定对17个非洲国家免除2021年到期的23笔无息贷款。

因此,中国已成为国际社会建设性和负责任成员的光辉榜样,它通过与其他国家和民族的互动、合作和相互支持实现发展和进步。如果各国基本上都同意和平与安全是不可分割的,那么从逻辑上讲,所有国家也都应该同意发展与繁荣同样是不可分割的。如果不应以其它国家的安全为基础来保障特定国家的安全,那么某些国家的发展和福祉也就不应以其它国家的发展与福祉为基础,至少不应通过武力或非法行径攫取欠发达国家和军事较弱国家的自然资源。我们不应忘记、误解或曲解2008-2012年的全球金融和经济危机、抗击新冠疫情流行和实施单边制裁的教训:在全球相互关联又相互依存的世界上,没有一个国家可以自给自足、不受干扰、无所不能和孤立存在。为了解决全球性灾难、面临的挑战和需要实现的目标,应该采取全球协调的方法。现在,所有国家都应该明白,傲慢、筑起新栅栏、帷幕和高墙或者单方面制裁总是适得其反。

在全球面对诸多挑战、对抗和冲突的风险不断上升的这一时期,中国出于对国际法和联合国体系的尊重,加强了对话、缓和局势以及和平解决所有争端的建设性努力。虽然某些国际政治、经济和军事一体化一直在加强对军事化、对抗、分裂和制裁的渲染,但中国始终奉行对话、伙伴关系、发展、协调和合作共赢的政策。今年7月在北京举行的金砖国家首脑会议和9月在撒马尔罕举行的上合组织首脑会议上最后通过的建设性文件是两份最重要的文件,它们体现了中国及其伙伴所采取的积极和负责任的政策。

所有国家自由选择自己的社会经济和文化发展道路以及自治制度的权利是和平共处的基本原则之一。在实践中,这意味着充分尊重每个国家的具体情况,尊重其特定的历史、文化、传统和总体历史经验。这种做法符合自由、尊严和自尊的普世价值观。如果人类要生存和繁荣,任何一个国家都不能替其他国家决定什么样的发展道路和什么样的社会经济制度是对其有利的。选择社会经济发展道路的自由不能被现成模式所取代,至少不能被自由企业制度模式取代,因为它显然已经耗尽了人类进步的任何可能性。

民主不是西方发达国家(主要是有殖民和新殖民记录的西方发达国家)向世界东部和南部发展中国家出口的商品。因此,西方宣传中所谓的“颜色革命”,即“民主化”和“捍卫人权”,实际上是西方统治扩张和霸权主义的赤裸裸的工具。这类“出口商”的真正目的始终是扩大对其他国家自然资源和人力资源(能源、战略矿产、市场和基础设施)的控制和开发,为其创造更多利润,作为可持续性越来越差的跨国公司自由体系长期存在的基础。即使按“民主”和“人权”的表面价值理解,人们也应当努力看清这些价值观在所谓的“民主”或自称输出它们的“西方政治”的日常实践中是如何发挥作用的。在其中许多情况下,种族、社会和其他形式的歧视是其系统性的特点,比如,诸如议会这样的民主机构已经被沦为其幕后少数群体,如今通常是由军工行业控制,所通过决策的橡皮图章。

中国已成为在充分尊重所有国家主权平等和不干涉别国内政原则基础上,为建立公正、包容的世界秩序而斗争的关键因素。中国在实践中也切实履行了这些原则,这使其在全球范围内的合作共赢中赢得了亲密的朋友和可靠的伙伴。在这方面,中国、俄罗斯和其他发展潜力越来越大的国家已经成为新的、多极化、包容且公正的世界秩序的领导者。

中国始终支持对和平、安全和发展至关重要的联合国体系,并已成为上海合作组织、金砖国家、新开发银行、亚洲基础设施开发银行等新型民主包容性机构和组织的主导力量。延着这一方向,中国国家主席、中共中央总书记习近平在2013年提出了发展现代全球基础设施、全球互联互通和全球经济发展的“一带一路”倡议。中国和17个中东欧国家的合作框架是一带一路倡议的组成部分。“一带一路”倡议已成为独具特色的、包容性的全球一体化方案,它向所有国家开放,没有任何限制或政治先决条件。我们相信,十月召开的第二十届中国共产党全国代表大会一定会加强“一带一路”倡议和中国与17个中东欧国家的合作框架,以此作为长期应对全球发展需求和社会经济挑战(包括即将到来的全球经济衰退)的可持续解决方案。与此同时,“一带一路”倡议还将继续服务于和平、和平解决所有问题、反对任何形式的对抗、统治或霸权主义的目标。

 
中塞携手务实合作

塞尔维亚和中国是双边、多边和国际合作各个领域的老朋友和亲密伙伴。两国在平等互利的基础上有着相同的和平、对话和合作的目标。两国在国际论坛上也相互支持,相互捍卫主权、领土完整和不干涉内政的基本原则。塞尔维亚支持一个中国政策,认为台湾是中华人民共和国的组成部分,中国同样支持一个塞尔维亚政策,认为科索沃和梅托希亚省是塞尔维亚的组成部分。2016年,习近平主席对塞尔维亚进行了历史性的国事访问,它成为塞尔维亚和中国全面战略伙伴关系的基石。此后几十个政府间的协议得到签署并开始执行。现在,中国是塞尔维亚最重要的伙伴之一。中国公司在塞尔维亚经营着最大的钢铁厂和最大的铜和金矿的开采。它们还建造了桥梁、工厂、发电厂和数百公里的现代化公路,将塞尔维亚与该地区的其他国家连接起来。中国公司一直在修建贝尔格莱德与布达佩斯(位于匈牙利)之间的高速铁路,其中一部分(贝尔格莱德—诺维萨德)已于今年投入运营。两国已经实行了互免签证,有关取消海关关税的磋商正在进行中,有望在今年年底前结束。为了进一步加强人文交流,中国最近在贝尔格莱德建造了欧洲这一地区最大、最漂亮的文化中心。

我们至今仍记得中国为全球抗击新冠肺炎作出的巨大贡献。在努力控制本国疫情的同时,中国政府对世界许多国家,特别是发展中国家的情况极为关注,无私地帮助它们控制和阻断疫情的蔓延。这是中国对其他国家理解和声援的又一个伟大例证。塞尔维亚将永远铭记中国在疫情期间给予的巨大援助和支持。中国的医生和医疗专家一直与塞尔维亚各地的医生携手合作,挽救塞尔维亚人民的生命。我们还要感谢中国向塞尔维亚提供了两个检测实验室和一个生产疫苗的工厂。

中国已成为欧盟的战略伙伴,而中国与17个中东欧国家的合作框架则起到了亚欧之间经济、技术和文化合作的桥梁作用。这种形式的合作是互益的,并且有助于对缓解东、西欧之间经济和技术发展的不平衡。不要以为欧洲目前的不稳定会使双方的合作放缓。恰恰相反,更广泛的合作和更加倍的努力来避免货物流动的中断,不仅符合中国和欧洲(欧盟)的共同利益,也有利于消除不稳定的根源并使形势恢复正常化。在这方面,塞尔维亚积极参与中国和17个中、东欧国家的合作框架,也必将发挥积极作用。

塞尔维亚和中国对当前破坏稳定的进程采取了类似的做法。两国都支持通过和平手段和对话解决所有问题,而为了取得成功,就必须解决造成不稳定的根源。两国也都反对任何形式的扩张主义、排他性和霸权主义。新的多极且民主的世界秩序必须建立在主权平等、领土完整和和平共处原则的基础上。两国都认为和平和安全是全球发展与繁荣不可分割的基础。为了避免更大范围的冲突,回到2030年联合国发展目标上来,必须恢复并在实践中充分尊重所有国家平等安全的原则。新的分裂、新的集团、新的结盟、新的帷幕与高墙绝不是人类的需要和努力所愿看到的。

在这方面,我们高度重视并全力支持中国共产党的总书记和中华人民共和国主席习近平提出的全球发展倡议(GDI)和全球安全倡议(GSI)。这两个倡议体现了中国和平、包容性发展和合作战略的精髓。因此,毫无疑问,它们在国际社会中激发了巨大的希望,让人们感到进一步的对抗和全球冲突的风险应该并且能够避免。继续和加强这种努力的理想之地是联合国组织,因为它是全世界不可替代的讨论和平与安全的场所。我们都需要更强大、更高效的联合国体系,而不是滥用权力政治的游乐场。