您做在的位置: 中国投资 > 封面故事 > 让中医药更好造福非洲人民——专访国家中…

让中医药更好造福非洲人民——专访国家中医药管理局国际合作司司长王笑频

让中医药更好造福非洲人民——专访国家中医药管理局国际合作司司长王笑频 | 中国投资

文 | 本刊记者 裴安迪    

编辑 | 侯洁如  

设计 | 李玉丹  

制作 | 黄硕存  

导读:

自1963年起,中医药已跟随中国援非医疗队先后进入到坦桑尼亚、赞比亚、莫桑比克等45个非洲国家。中药材、中药制品在各类疫情防治中所展现的疗效使之成为非洲各国进行疾病防控的重要药品。

中国卫生援外55年来,中国政府通过医疗、科研、保健等形式为非洲人民提供了安全有效可及的中医药服务,为非洲防治疟疾、艾滋病等重大传染病做出了突出贡献。中国目前已经累计向非洲派出中医医生2000余人次,同仁堂、天士力等中国中药企业相继在非洲开设中医诊疗机构,受到非洲各国政府和人民的广泛欢迎,中非中医药交流与合作前景广阔。藉此,《中国投资》杂志社对国家中医药管理局国际合作司司长王笑频进行了采访。

⬆执行第十二批坦桑尼亚HIV项目的中医大夫对患者进行问诊

《中国投资》:在刚刚召开的中非合作论坛北京峰会以及此前召开的2018年中非卫生合作高级别会议上均有中医药方面的成果和亮点,您能具体介绍一下吗?

王笑频:今年9月3-4日,中国政府成功主办了中非合作论坛北京峰会,习近平主席在峰会上指出,中非双方基于相似遭遇和共同使命,在过去的岁月里同心同向、守望相助,走出了一条特色鲜明的合作共赢之路。在这条道路上,中国始终秉持真实亲诚理念和正确义利观,同非洲各国团结一心、同舟共济、携手前进。会议上通过的《中非合作论坛北京行动计划(2019-2021)》明确提出,支持中医药和非洲传统医药合作,加强高层交流,鼓励中医药和非洲传统医药机构在非洲建立中医药和非洲传统医药中心,开展医疗、教育、科研和产业合作。

在峰会前夕,2018中非卫生合作高级别会议中非传统医药合作专题论坛成功在中国北京召开,来自科摩罗、布基纳法索、南非等来自14个非洲国家的多个卫生部门和医疗机构及国内中医药领域代表参会,就中非传统医药合作进行了深入的讨论,一致认为应加强中非传统医药政府间合作,不断满足非洲民众健康需求。

《中国投资》:目前,中医药在非洲发展的整体情况如何,在非洲的不同区域分别有哪些特点?

王笑频:中国与非洲在传统医药领域有着悠久而广泛的交流历史。中医药进入非洲,最早可以追溯到郑和下西洋时期。新中国成立后,伴随着中国对非援助医疗工作的开展,中医药在非洲大陆得到了广泛应用。自1963年起,中医药已跟随中国援非医疗队先后进入到坦桑尼亚、赞比亚、莫桑比克等45个非洲国家。中药材、中药制品在各类疫情防治中所展现的疗效使之成为非洲各国进行疾病防控的重要药品。

官方层面上,中国政府高度重视与非洲国家在中医药领域开展交流与合作。目前,国家中医药管理局已与马拉维、坦桑尼亚、科摩罗、加纳、埃塞俄比亚、摩洛哥等6个非洲国家签署了传统医学领域合作谅解备忘录,建立了政府间合作的基本框架,在传统医学法律法规、医疗保健、教育培训、科研开发、产业合作等方面开展交流与合作。

从非洲大陆的不同区域看,北非各国与我国在中医药领域交流频繁,中医药接受程度较高。阿尔及利亚、突尼斯、摩洛哥等均是较早接受我国援外医疗队的国家,中方与其联合开展的针灸培训合作项目尤其受到北非国家的欢迎和重视,为当地的中医药人才培养奠定了良好的基础。

此外,东非是中医药在非发展的亮点地区。东非地区国家普遍卫生状况不佳,疫情频发,中医药在该地区的疾病防治方面发挥出了独特作用。中医药主导了坦桑尼亚、科摩罗、马拉维的传染病(艾滋病、疟疾)防治、试治项目,取得了良好的效果,其中坦桑尼亚项目已持续了20余年。

中医药在西非地区的发展起步较晚,但基础较好。一方面,我国在西非地区建立的孔子学院多次举办中医药文化讲座,为中医药在该地区的发展提供了良好的人文交流环境;另一方面,中医药在2014年抗击西非埃博拉病毒疫情中发挥了巨大作用,为中医药在该地区留下了良好的口碑。

南非经济较为发达,其现代医学领先非洲其他地区,对传统医学的研究较多,业内接受度高。南非在立法方面给予中医药政策保障,肯定了针灸师的法律地位,西开普大学开设了中医学历教育。

《中国投资》:中医药在对非合作中发挥了哪些作用,特别是近年来取得了哪些成果?

王笑频:近年来,随着“一带一路”倡议的提出,特别是自2015年中非合作论坛约翰内斯堡峰会召开以来,中非中医药合作日益密切频繁,中医药正在为非洲国家在防治重大传染病、提供医疗保健服务等方面做出越来越多的贡献。

一是在非洲重大传染病防治上发挥了关键作用。2015年,中国中医科学院的屠呦呦研究员因发现并提取了青蒿素而获颁诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。广州中医药大学团队在科摩罗实施“快速清除疟疾”项目,通过以青蒿素为基础研制的复方药物全民服药方案,有效控制了科摩罗疟疾的流行,实现了科摩罗疟疾患者零死亡,赢得了科摩罗民众、政府以及世界卫生组织的高度评价。目前,世界卫生组织已经将全民服药方案纳入到疟疾防治指南当中,在全球推广。中国中医科学院承担了中坦中医药试治艾滋病项目,在过去30年间派出了60多位中医药专家赴坦工作,帮助大量患者缓解了病情,延长了寿命,提高了生存质量。

二是在为非洲人民提供医疗保健服务上发挥了独特作用。中国政府通过医疗、科研、保健等形式为非洲人民提供医疗保健服务,已经累计向非洲派出中医医生2000余人次。应非洲国家政府邀请,中国政府还多次派出中医药专家为非洲各国政要提供中医药服务,疗效显著,收到良好效果。在援非医疗队及援非医疗人员培训的基础上,同仁堂、天士力等中国中药企业相继在非洲设立了分公司,开设了中医诊疗机构,为非洲提供了安全有效可及的中医药服务。2017年,中非中药进出口额达到8000万美元,较5年前增长了2倍,发展势头迅猛。

《中国投资》:对于今后中非传统医药领域的合作,中医药管理局有哪些愿景和构想?

王笑频:未来的中非传统医药的合作,应本着“共商、共建、共享”的原则,实现更高水平的合作共赢,更好造福中非各国人民。对此,我们有三点构想:

第一,让传统医药成为中非合作的文明之桥。中国和非洲同为人类古代文明的发源地,中医药是打开中华文明宝库的钥匙,传统医药也是非洲文明的重要组成部分。我们有理由共同携手传承好发展好传统医药的宝贵财富,保护好世界非物质文化遗产,保护好珍稀濒危动植物等生态资源,使中非古老文明再次焕发光彩。

第二,让传统医药成为中非合作的健康之桥。世界卫生组织谭德赛总干事在联合国愿景里提到“愿在我们的世界里,人人都能过上健康富足的生活,无论他们是谁、来自哪里。”未来我们将继续加强高层交流,让传统医药为非洲人民健康服务。

第三,让传统医药成为中非合作的友谊之桥。中国是非洲各国的好朋友、好兄弟、好伙伴,很多华人华侨因为中医药事业选择扎根非洲,成为中非友谊的使者;也有许多非洲留学生来华学习中医药,并将中医药带回祖国,造福祖国人民。

《中国投资》:为了实现以上几点愿景,中医药管理局将从哪几个方面开展工作?

王笑频:一是坚持政府共商,进一步提升合作的层次。积极落实世界卫生组织《2014-2023年传统医学的战略》,推进制定各国传统医药政策法规,制定传统医药标准;充分发挥多边、双边机制作用,加强中非政府高层在传统医学领域往来与互动。八月,中非卫生合作高级别会议中非传统医药合作专题论坛刚刚在国家会议中心举办,2018年9月,我们又将在多哥举办第二届中非合作青蒿素复方控疟研讨会,与非洲各国代表共同讨论如何促进推动青蒿素在防治传染性疾病中发挥重要作用。

二是坚持机构共建,进一步拓展合作的领域。我们将进一步加大对国内中医药大学和制药企业开展对非合作的支持力度,积极搭建各类科研、教育、产业合作平台;支持在非洲开展传统医药资源调查和保护,共同分享传统药物研发的成功经验,促进传统医药保护、发展和利用。 

三是坚持服务共享,进一步夯实合作的成果。我局将通过中医药国际合作专项加强在非洲的中医药中心的布局建设,目前,首家具有援助性质的“中国—摩洛哥中医药中心”正在积极筹建中。面对非洲各国医疗保健发展的新需求,我们还将共同合作建设更多中医药中心,推广中医药适宜技术,为非洲民众提供更好的服务;同时,鼓励中国企业赴非洲开展中药产品的本地化生产,支持非洲企业来华进行传统医药合作,共享传统医药资源,推动传统医学让更多国家的民众共同享用,保障中非人民健康。

⬆2015年屠呦呦研究员因发现并提取了青蒿素而获颁诺贝尔生理学或医学奖 

英文版:

Bringing Benefits to African with Traditional Chinese Medicine

Author |  Pei Andi, China Investment 

Translated | Lei Lingyu     

Design | Li Yudan

Production | Huang Shuocun


During the 55 years of Chinese medical aid to foreign countries, the Chinese government has provided secure, efficient and available Traditional Chinese Medicine (hereinafter referred to as TCM) services to the African people through medicare, scientific research and health protection, making outstanding contributions to the prevention of malaria, AIDS and other major infectious diseases in Africa. Till now, China has made around 2,000 dispatches of TCM physicians to Africa in total. Meanwhile, Tongrentang Chinese Medicine, TIANJIN TASLY Group Co., Ltd. and other Chinese TCM enterprises have consecutively set up TCM medical institutions in Africa, which was greatly welcomed by the African governments and their people, indicating huge prospects for cooperation and exchanges in China and Africa herbal medicines.   

China Investment: As we know, there have been achievements and highlights on TCM at the recent Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation and the 2018 High-Level Meeting on China-Africa Health Cooperation. Could you please talk about them in details?

Wang Xiaopin: The Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation was successfully held by the Chinese Government from September 3rd to 4th this year. President Xi Jinping pointed out at the summit that the similar history and missions had brought China and Africa together; both have been working for the same goals and helping each other for a win-win cooperation with its own unique characteristics. In pursuing such cooperation, China values sincerity, friendship,honesty and integrity. Chinastands side by side with Africa in working towards a shared future against all shared odds. It’s specifically noted in the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Beijing Action Plan (2019-2021) passed during the meeting that the two sides will support traditional Chinese medicine and African herbal medicine cooperation, strengthen high-level exchanges, and encourage traditional Chinese medicine and African herbal medicine institutions to set up traditional Chinese medicine and African herbal medicine centers in Africa and carry out medical, education, research and industrial cooperation.

Shortly before the summit, China-Africa Traditional Medicine Cooperation of the 2018 High-Level Meeting on China-Africa Health Cooperation was held in Beijing, China. Representatives from ministries of health and medical institutes from 14 African countries including Comoros, Burkina Faso and South Africa as well as Chinese representatives in medical area attended the meeting and carried out in-depth discussions on China-Africa traditional medicine cooperation. They believed that government-to-government cooperation should be strengthened to meet the increasing health needs of the African people.

China Investment: Currently, how is TCM developed in Africa and what are its features in different regions in Africa?

Wang Xiaopin: There have been long and extensive exchanges between China and Africa in TCM. The earliest period for TCM in Africa could be traced back to Zheng He’s Voyages. After founding of the People’s Republic of China and along with our medical aid to Africa, TCM was widely put into practice in African continents. Since 1963, TCM has consecutively been introduced to 45 African countries such as Tanzania, Zambia and Mozambique with Chinese medical aid teams to Africa. Efficacy of herbal medicines and TCM products in preventing and treating every epidemic made them very important drugs for disease control and prevention in African countries. 

Officially, the Chinese government laid great emphasis on exchanges and cooperation in TCM with African countries. Till now, National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine has signed Memorandum of Understanding in traditional medicine with six African countries namely Malawi, Tanzania, Comorin, Ghana, Ethiopia and Morocco, and has set up basic framework for government-to-government cooperation for exchanges and cooperation in laws and regulations, medicare, educational training, scientific research and development, and industrial cooperation in traditional medicine. 

On the African continent, countries in Northern Africa in particular have more frequent exchanges with China in and a relatively high acceptance level of TCM. Algeria, Tunis and Morocco are among countries who accepted Chinese medical aid team earlier. The acupuncture training cooperation programs between China and these three countries are especially welcomed and valued by Northern Africa, laying a good foundation for the cultivation of TCM talents. 

In addition, Eastern Africa is the highlight of TCM development in Africa. This region has poor hygiene situation and high frequency of epidemics. Nevertheless, TCM has played its unique role in disease prevention and control, and has achieved good results through leading the prevention and control of infectious diseases such as AIDS and malaria and trial programs in Tanzania, Comorin and Malawi. In particular, programs in Tanzania last over 20 years. 

TCM began later in Western Africa but with a good foundation. On the one hand, Confucius Institutes in Western Africa have held multiple lectures on TCM culture, offering a good people-to-people exchange environment for TCM development in the region. On the other hand, TCM has a good reputation after its huge role in fighting against Ebola outbreak in Western Africa in 2014. 

South Africa has a booming economy and is superior to other African regions in the modern medicine field. It has conducted more researches on traditional medicine which are widely recognized in the industry. Besides, it guarantees TCM legislatively to assure the legal status of acupuncturists. TCM courses are offered at the University of Western Cape.  

China Investment: What’s the role of TCM in China-Africa cooperation, especially the achievements in recent years?

Wang Xiaopin: In recent years, with the proposal of Belt and Road initiative and especially the convening of 2015 Johannesburg Summit of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, China-Africa TCM cooperation has becoming frequent and TCM is now contributing more to preventing major infectious diseases and providing medicare in African countries. 

First, TCM has played a key role in preventing serious infectious diseases in Africa. In 2015, researcher Tu Youyou from China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine after she discovered and extracted artemisinin. In the program of “Rapid Eradication of Malaria” in Comorin conducted by a team from the Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, artemisinin-based compounds Mass Drug Administration (MDA) was taken for efficient control of malaria prevalence in Comorin, realizing zero death of malaria patients in Comorin and winning high appraisal from its people and government as well as from World Health Organization. Currently, WHO has included MDA into guidelines for the treatment of malaria to promote it across the globe. China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences undertakes Sino-Tanzania TCM Trial Treatment of AIDS program, and has sent about 60 TCM experts to Tanzania over the past 30 years to help a large number of patients alleviate illness, prolong life span and improve survival quality. 

Second, TCM has played a unique role in providing medicare to the African people. The Chinese government has offered medicare services to the African people through medical services, scientific research and health protection and 2,000 dispatches of TCM physicians have been made to Africa. Upon invitation of African governments, the Chinese government has sent TCM experts for many times to provide TCM services to African politicians. Efficacy as well as results was obvious and good. Besides sending medical aid teams to Africa and training of medical staffs for Africa, Tongrentang Chinese Medicine, TIANJIN TASLY Group Co., Ltd. and other Chinese TCM enterprises have consecutively set up branches and TCM medical institutions in Africa, providing secure, efficient and available TCM services to Africa. In 2017, import-export volume of China-Africa TCM amounted up to US$80 million, which doubled what was five years ago, indicating a rapid development trend.

China Investment: For future cooperation in China-Africa TCM, what are the visions and ideas from National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine?

Wang Xiaopin: For future cooperation in China-Africa TCM, principle of consultation, contribution and shared benefits shall be based on to realize higher level win-win cooperation and better serve people in China and Africa. For this, we propose three ideas: 

Firstly, TCM shall be the culture bridge in China and Africa cooperation. China and Africa both are cradles for ancient civilization and TCM serves as the key to treasure of Chinese civilization. Also, traditional medicine is an important part of African civilization. We shall join together to inherit and develop well the precious treasure of traditional medicine, preserve world intangible cultural heritage as well as protect rare and endangered plants and animals and other ecological resources to reinvigorate China-Africa ancient civilization.

Second, TCM shall be the health bridge in China and Africa cooperation. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director-general of WHO put forward in UN Vision Statement that “I envision a world in which everyone can live healthy, productive lives, regardless of who they are or where they live”. In the future, we will continue to strengthen high-level exchanges to offer better TCM services to the African people. 

Third, TCM shall be the friendship bridge in China and Africa cooperation. China has been a good friend, brother and partner for Africa and many Chinese and overseas Chinese choose to stay in Africa due to TCM, becoming envoy for China-African friendship. Meanwhile, many African overseas students come to China to study TCM and bring TCM back to Africa to benefit their homeland. 

China Investment: To realize the visions above, how will National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine carry out work?

Wang Xiaopin: First, we should stick to government consultation for further cooperation improvement. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy: 2014-2023 would be positively put into practice to promote enactment of policies and regulations for traditional medicine in each country as well as standards for traditional medicine. Multilateral and bilateral mechanisms would be fully played to strengthen exchanges and interaction in traditional medicine between China-Africa senior government authorities. In August, China-Africa Traditional Medicine Cooperation of High Level Meeting on China-Africa Health Cooperation was justly held in China National Convention Center. In September 2018, the 2nd China-Africa Symposium on Fast Elimination of Malaria Source Eradication will be held again in Togo and during the symposium, we will discuss with African delegates how to push ahead with the key role of artemisinin in preventing and controlling infectious diseases. 

Second, institutional construction shall be adhered to for further cooperation expansion. We would further strengthen support on domestic TCM universities and pharmaceutical enterprises to develop cooperation in Africa, actively set up various platforms for scientific research, education and industrial cooperation. Investigation and protection of traditional medicinal resources in Africa would be backed up to share successful experience in developing traditional drugs and promote protection, development and utilization of traditional medicine. 

Third, shared services shall be stick to for further strengthening of cooperation achievements. Our Administration would strengthen with special efforts distribution and construction of TCM centers in Africa through TCM international cooperation. Till now, the first China-Morocco TCM center with foreign aid characteristics was under active preparation. Faced with new requirements of medicare in African countries, we would work together to construct more TCM centers and promote TCM appropriate technology to provide better services for African people. Meanwhile, Chinese enterprises are encouraged to carry out localized production of herbal products in Africa and also African enterprises are supported for traditional medicine cooperation in China. Traditional medicine resources will be shared to push forward shared application of traditional medicine in more countries to secure health in China and Africa.