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一带一路:新中关系发展新动能——专访新西兰驻华大使麦康年(John McKinnon)

在发展对华关系上,新西兰历来秉承积极、创新的理念。李克强总理访问期间双方签署的“一带一路”安排备忘录充分体现了这一理念,它标志着新西兰愿意与中国一道以创新的方式寻找新的发展动能

文|本刊记者 张梅   翻译|王晓波

3月27日,新中两国政府签署了《中华人民共和国政府和新西兰政府关于加强“一带一路”倡议合作的安排备忘录》。这是我国在“一带一路”框架下与南太平洋地区国家签署的第一个合作文件。新西兰成为第一个与中国签署一带一路相关协议的西方发达国家。为此,本刊独家专访新西兰驻华大使麦康年。

 

具有开创性和示范意义的双边关系

《中国投资》:中国与新西兰关系中出现过许多“第一”。在西方国家中,新西兰为什么总是敢于迈出第一步?新西兰与中国签署有关“一带一路”倡议的安排备忘录是出于何种考虑?

麦康年:中国是新西兰在政治、经济和文化方面最重要的合作伙伴之一,我们两国始终保持着亲密、互惠的关系,双方在广泛领域共同创造了中国同发达国家关系中的多个“第一”。

正如习近平主席2014年访问新西兰时所描述那样,新西兰与中国的双边关系“具有开创性和示范意义”。在两国的贸易关系中,我们实现了五个重要的“第一”:新西兰是第一个同意中国加入世贸组织的国家;第一个承认中国完全市场经济地位的国家;第一个与中国就双边自由贸易协定展开谈判并签署协定的发达国家;最近又成为第一个启动自贸协定升级谈判的发达国家。

在其它领域,新中双方也在不断实现更多的“第一”。中国的首个三方援助项目,就是与新西兰联手合作为库克群岛改善供水设施。新西兰是第一个与中国签署政府间合作制作电视片和电影协议的国家,两国将共同拍摄电影和电视节目。新西兰是第一个成为亚洲基础设施投资银行(AIIB)意向创始成员国的发达国家。2016年,两国又率先承认了彼此的有机产品认证体系,这给两国的有机产品生产商和消费者都带来了很大的益处。

今年3月,中国总理李克强对新西兰进行了正式访问。两国间高层的政治往来有着稳固、持久的传统,并且结下了真正的友谊。新西兰对能在世界形势处在重要的时刻接待中国总理感到非常荣幸。

中国总理的这次访问获得了巨大成功,两国领导人既回顾和总结了已经取得的成绩,也为未来发展制定了雄心勃勃的规划。这次访问有许多亮点,不仅使总理欣赏到新西兰美丽的自然风景,而且双方还取得了一些重大成就,它们将惠及许多中国消费者和游客,当然对新西兰人也是非常有益的。其中包括新西兰开始向中国出口冰鲜肉、中国游客将获得五年多次入境签证以及双方将举办新中旅游年活动。

2017年3月28日,国务院总理李克强与新西兰总理英格利希共同参观海尔—斐雪派克公司奥克兰研发中心

期待新中合作展示一带一路的世界意义

《中国投资》:当今世界面临着许多不确定因素,在这样的形势下,“一带一路”倡议会产生怎样的影响?

麦康年:中国在全球和亚太地区的经济发展中扮演着极其重要的角色,新西兰对此十分赞同,并且这些年来一直致力于与中国加强双边关系和经济联系。新西兰是第一个承认中国完全市场经济地位的发达国家,第一个与中国启动自贸协定谈判的国家,这充分证明了新西兰对推进双边紧密关系的强大信心。

双方共同参与了各种范围的区域论坛,包括亚太经合组织(APEC)和区域全面经济伙伴关系(RCEP)的谈判。作为第一个成为亚洲基础设施投资银行意向创始成员国的发达国家,新西兰对中国能在2015年牵头成立这一机构表示欢迎,因为亚洲的强劲、可持续的发展离不开银行的支持。同为这一重要机构的创始成员国,新西兰非常珍视与中国在金融领域的合作伙伴关系。

我们对能与中国签署自贸协定也感到很骄傲。自协定生效以来,双边贸易额已经增长了一倍。新西兰是一个值得信赖的高品质产品的供应国,目前是中国五大境外食品供应国之一。

新西兰已经注意到最近中国领导人针对全球化发表的看法,习近平主席在达沃斯论坛上的讲话赢得各方赞誉。中国承诺将进一步开放市场并在“一带一路”沿线进行投资具有非常重要的国际意义,我们期待新中两国能共同努力,向世界展示开放市场的益处。

新西兰与中国最近又开启双边自贸协定的升级谈判,这将为两国关系的发展翻开新篇章,也向世界证明中国在贸易自由化方面做出的承诺。

 

目标一致同向而行

《中国投资》:为了实现中国和新西兰在发展方面制定的目标,新西兰在“一带一路”框架下计划做些什么?同时希望中国做些什么?

麦康年:“一带一路”倡议的总体目标与新西兰作为一个出口国家的目标是一致的。新西兰重视加强连接、自由贸易、增进人民间的交流、更大范围地实现金融一体化以及在规划和政策方面更紧密的合作。在中国总理访问新西兰期间,我们双方一致同意在一带一路框架下继续寻求新的发展机遇。

新西兰在贸易便利化和服务业贸易方面有着极为丰富的经验,我们一直倡导要推动全球贸易便利化、设施联通和区域一体化,从而保证设施、贸易服务和金融的畅通。我们虽然没有国际化的大型基础设施建设公司,但在全球互联互通方面具有先进的经验,而中国在基础设施建设领域经验丰富,这为两国加强在基础设施领域的合作提供了机会。

在发展对华关系上,新西兰历来秉承积极、创新的理念。李克强总理访问期间双方签署的“一带一路”安排备忘录充分体现了这一理念,它标志着新西兰愿意与中方一道以创新的方式寻找新的发展动能。

李克强总理在访问新西兰期间,双方还达成了几项协定,与一带一路倡议的精神和意图也是相吻合的。双方共同宣布了在今年四月举行第一轮自贸协定升级谈判;双方同意放宽签证政策为游客提供更多便利;增加两国直航班次;两国将在教育领域展开更深层次的合作。这些协定无疑将加强我们两国的关系,实现两国间货物、服务和人员更自由的往来。新西兰虽然在地理上与中国相隔较远,处在一带一路的尽头,但随着两国合作的不断加深,距离已经越来越不会成为我们之间的障碍。

 

双方多领域合作受益匪浅

《中国投资》:“一带一路”倡议会给新西兰带来哪些变化?在“一带一路倡议”框架下,中国与新西兰的未来会呈现出怎样的局面?

麦康年:新西兰人民与中国人民是真正的好朋友,通过我们之间在政治和贸易方面实现那么多的“第一”,彼此之间形成了紧密的合作伙伴的关系。但是,我们仍需着眼未来,科学与技术的合作为推进双方伙伴关系发展注入新的活力。2016年,新西兰成立了三个新西兰—中国研究合作中心,旨在促进和支持两国科研机构间的交往。

农业领域的合作也深化了我们之间的关系,因为新西兰在农业领域具备先进的知识和技能,而中国又有实现农业产业现代化的强烈愿望。新西兰初级产业部将与中国食品药品监督管理总局合作实施食品安全专业奖学金计划和兽医合作项目也充分说明两国在这一领域有着紧密的合作基础。

新西兰在气候变化和减排方面也有新的合作举措。去年,具有创新性的畜禽养殖污染减排项目第一期工作已在山东完成。

新西兰现在有17万的华裔,占全国总人口的4%。每周有四十多架次的直飞航班往返于两国;每年有40多万中国游客前来新西兰旅游参观;有35000多名的中国留学生在新西兰的大学和学校学习,因此中国被视为是新西兰在政治、经济和文化方面最重要的伙伴也就完全不足为奇了。两国已经同意将我们的双边关系定义为“全面战略伙伴”。通过节日、电影和饮食,双方增进了对彼此文化的了解,两国间互访人数的增加也使我们从中获益。此外,现在有超过10万的新西兰人正在学习汉语,或来中国学习、工作和生活,这对我们国家非常有利。与此同时,我们也乐见大量的中国学生在新西兰学习。双方间的投资和人才交流也是一件值得庆幸的事情。最后,繁荣的双边贸易关系也令我们两国受益匪浅。


New Driving Force of China-New Zealand Relations

——Exclusive Interview with New Zealand Ambassador to China John McKinnon

By Zhang Mei from China Investment Magazine

On Mar.27, 2017, the Memorandum ofArrangement on Strengthening ‘the Belt and Road’ Initiative Cooperation betweenPeople's Republic of China and New Zealand was signed by the two governments,and this is the first cooperation document that China signed with a SouthPacific country in  ‘the Belt and Road’framework. New Zealand has also become the first Western developed country tosign an agreement relevant to ‘the Belt and Road’ with China. For this specialreason, our reporter made an exclusive interview with John Mckinnon, NewZealand’s ambassador to China, to gain his view on the relationship between NewZealand and China under ‘the Belt and Road’ Initiative.

 

Journaliste:There are many ‘firsts’ in theChina-NZ bilateral relations. Why NZ is always brave to be the ‘first’ amongwestern countries? Why NZ and China sign the memorandum of Arrangement on theBelt and Road Initiative?

John Mckinnon: China is one of New Zealand’smost significant political, economic and cultural partners. The close, mutuallybeneficial relations that we enjoy are evident in the series of firsts that wehave achieved across the breadth of the relationship.

New Zealand and China have a “pioneeringand exemplary” bilateral relationship, as described by President Xi during his2014 visit to New Zealand. We have achieved five important firsts in our traderelationship. New Zealand was the first country to agree to China’s WTOaccession, the first to recognise China as a market economy, the firstdeveloped country to commence negotiating and to sign a bilateral FTA withChina and most recently the first developed country to launch an upgrade ofthat FTA. 

But this pioneering spirit isn’t limited totrade. Perhaps most prominent is China’s first trilateral aid project, whereNew Zealand and China and partnered to create better water infrastructure inthe Cook Islands. New Zealand was the first country to sign treaty-levelagreements with China jointly to produce both television and film, and a seriesof exciting co-productions are underway. New Zealand was the first developedcountry to sign up to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), and in2016 became the first country mutually torecognise our respective organics foodsystems, to the benefit of our two countries’ organics producers and consumers

In March, China’s Premier Li Keqiang paidan official visit to New Zealand. Our two countries have a strong andconsistent history of high-level political contact, and a genuine friendship.New Zealand was privileged to host the Premier at such an important timeglobally.

The visit was an overwhelming success, thatprovided both countries with the opportunity to reflect on the successes thathave been achieved across the breadth of the relationship as well as set anambitious agenda for the future. The visit had many highlights, and besides thePremier being able to enjoy a of New Zealand’s natural beauty for himself, wemarked some significant achievements, to the benefit of many Chinese consumersand tourists, and of New Zealanders too. This includes the commencement ofchilled meat exports from New Zealand, five year multi-entry visas for Chinesetourists and a bilateral year of tourism. A list of all announcements can befound on the New Zealand Embassy’s WeChat page [NewZealandInChina].

 

What influence ‘Belt and Road’ Initiativewill have under the current uncertainties the world is facing?

John Mckinnon: China is an important playerin the global economy and in the Asia Pacific Region. New Zealand recognisesthis, and has consistently engaged with China over a period of years tostrengthen our bilateral ties and economic linkages. New Zealand was the firstdeveloped country to recognise China as a market economy and the first tolaunch an FTA with China, which speaks to our confidence in the strength ofbilateral relations.

We engage with China across a wide range ofregional fora, including in APEC and in RCEP negotiations. We were the firstdeveloped country to sign on to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Wecongratulate China on its shepherding of this institution to its establishmentin 2015.  The bank supports strong,sustainable growth in Asia and we value our partnership with China, both asfounding members of this important institution.

We are proud of our FTA with China, whichhas been a categorical success. Bilateral trade flows have doubled since theFTA entered into force. As a trusted supplier of high quality food, New Zealandis now one of China’s top five foreign food suppliers.

New Zealand has observed China’s recentstatements on globalisation and President Xi’s remarks at Davos deservecongratulations. China’s commitments to open borders and its investments alongthe belt and road are of international significance and we look forward to usboth working together to demonstrate the benefits of open borders to others.

New Zealand and China recently launchednegotiations to upgrade our bilateral FTA. This will set the scene for a newchapter of growth in our relations, and demonstrate China’s commitment on tradeliberalisation to the whole world.

In order to achieve development objectivesfor both China and NZ, what NZ is going to do and what NZ expects China to dounder frame of the ‘belt and road’ initiative?

The overarching aim of the belt and roadinitiative (BRI) is consistent with New Zealand’s goals as an exporting nation.New Zealand values increased connectivity, freer trade, enhanced people-peopleconnections, greater financial integration and closer collaboration onregulation and policy. During the Premier’s visit we agreed to explore neweconomic opportunities along the Belt and Road.

New Zealand has a wealth of experience inareas of trade facilitation and services. We are world leading in pushingforward the global trading infrastructure and regional integration to help theflow of goods, services, people and finances. We do not have largeinfrastructure companies with global reach, but we feel there are synergies tobe forged between China’s experiences in building infrastructure, pairing thatwith New Zealand’s experience in enhancing connectivity more broadly.

New Zealand has historically taken apositive and innovative approach to our relationship with China.  Signing an arrangement on belt and roadduring Premier Li’s visit continues our long-standing commitment to embrace newideas positively and innovatively.  Itsignals our willingness to work with China to identify new ways to add value,in an innovative way.

Several agreements reached at the timeofPremier Li’s visit to New Zealand are consistent with the spirit and intentof the Belt and Road Initiative. We jointly announced dates for the first roundof FTA upgrade discussions, which took place in April; we agreed to liberalisevisas, to improve the experience of our tourists; we agreed to an increase inthe number of direct flights between our two countries; and we agreed onstronger education cooperation. Each of these areas strengthens our bilateralconnectivity, and frees up the movement of goods, services and people. NewZealand may be physically distant from China – at one end of theBelt and Road – but that physical distance is becoming increasingly irrelevant.

 

What changes the ‘belt and road’ initiativewill bring to NZ? What would the future look like for China and NZ under theframe of ‘belt and road’ initiative?

John Mckinnon: The people of New Zealandand China have a genuine friendship. This is backed-up by a series of political and trading firsts that makeour relationship a partnership. But, our relationship is also focused on thefuture. The pursuit of science and technology cooperation has pushed ourrelationship to new frontiers. In 2016, New Zealand established three NewZealand-China Research Collaboration Centres to facilitate and supportengagement between our science communities.

Pursuit of agricultural cooperation hasdeepened the cooperative spirit of our relationship, and pairs an area of NewZealand expertise with China’s desire to modernise its agricultural industry.The linkages here are very strong, underpinned by scholarship programmes forChinese food safety officials and veterinary cooperation programmes.

We have new cooperation activities onclimate change and emissions reduction. Last year, the first phase of aninnovative water quality project was completed in Shandong Province. 

New Zealand is now home to 170,000 personsof Chinese ethnic decent, around 4% of our total population. With over fortydirect flights per week, over 400,000 Chinese tourists visit our shores eachyear and over 35,000 Chinese students are enrolled at New Zealand universitiesand schools. It’s no surprise then that China is regarded as one of New Zealand’smost significant political, economic and cultural partners. We have agreed todefine the bilateral relationship as a “comprehensive strategic partnership”.We mutually benefit from increased exposure to our cultures, through festivals,films and food. We benefit through the increased numbers of people visitingeach other’s countries. We benefit from the large number of New Zealanders whoare learning Chinese and who come to study, work and live in China – now over100,000. We benefit from the large number of Chinese students who spend time inNew Zealand. We benefit from a two-way investment and from knowledge flows. Andof course, we both benefit from our flourishing two-way traderelationship.