您做在的位置: 中国投资 > 封面故事 > 伙伴 创新 减少农村贫困——联合国粮农…

伙伴 创新 减少农村贫困——联合国粮农组织与中国共同推广农业可持续发展创新解决方案

农业的健康发展对确保粮食和营养安全、保护自然资源和生物多样性、促进生态文明建设以及为农民创造收入和解决生计尤为关键,这些都是保证社会和政治稳定的根本,也是可持续发展和一带一路倡议取得整体成功必不可少的前提所在

文|马文森博士  联合国粮食及农业组织驻华代表    翻译|王晓波

合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织,FAO)是联合国的所属机构,领导国际社会共同战胜饥饿。

粮农组织是知识和信息库,帮助发展中国家和处于过渡转型期的国家对其农业、林业和渔业进行现代化改造和完善,确保所有国家的营养健康和粮食安全。它用意大利语确立的宗旨fiat panis 的意思就是“让所有人都有面包”。

粮农组织以全球公共产品的形式与各国分析和分享有关粮食、农业和自然资源的重要信息。但粮农组织的工作并不只是单向的流程,通过确定并和具有专业知识的不同合作伙伴一起工作,促成知识供求双方间的对话沟通,粮农组织还起到了重要的连接作用。通过将知识转化为行动,联合国粮农组织将这一领域国家、地区和全球的创新理念结合起来,起到了相互促进的作用。通过这种联合方式,促进了政府、发展伙伴、民间团体和私营部门在粮食和营养安全,以及农业和农村发展间的伙伴关系。

 

粮农组织与中国的合作

自1982年在中国成立代表处以来,粮农组织与中国建立并保持了坚实而紧密的合作关系,特别是在粮食安全和农业发展方面。过去的近四十年里,粮农组织通过经常预算和预算外资金为中国提供了广泛的技术支持,实施了400多个项目,数千万人口受益。

这些项目涵盖农业政策和战略、粮食安全与营养、渔业、林业、环境、气候变化和可持续自然资源管理、作物集约化、畜牧业发展、跨界动植物病虫害防治、突发事件准备、救济和重建以及“南南合作”。

2016至2020年,粮农组织在中国的工作将围绕《国别规划框架》(CPF)展开,旨在支持国内可持续农业发展的同时,促进中国参与到区域和全球农业发展的议程中,特别是在一带一路倡议的背景下。

将国家农业发展规划与粮农组织的相对优势结合起来,粮农组织为中国制定的《国别规划框架》列出了四个优先领域,它们是:

应对气候变化,抗击粮食不安全为了支持中国农业生产的可持续发展,粮农组织提倡创新的干预措施,助力大众创新的发展理念。全球农业发展的新做法,包括但不限于农业生态方式、气候智能型农业、营养敏感型农业、可持续和包容型的食品价值链、信息通信技术和电子农业;这些已经通过政策咨询和发展支持、观念增强、能力建设、机构互联先行试点等方式的推广和普及,成为了业内的主流。此外,粮农组织还一直在助推全球重要农业文化遗产计划(GIAHS)的发展。全球重要农业文化遗产的概念与传统的文化遗产或保护区景观不同,它更加全面系统,是一项涵盖人类社区的生活体系,与当地居民的土地、文化、农业景观、生物物理环境和更广泛的社会环境有着错综复杂的关系。

支持中国的扶贫项目粮农组织将与其合作伙伴一道,为支持中国减贫制定方案和提供专业的减贫知识,旨在为农村贫困人口及其组织赋权,促进体面的农村就业和农村社会保障。此外,一些国家对借鉴中国经验表现出了极大的兴趣。粮农组织正在总结中国的减贫经验,与其它发展中国家分享。

推动“同一健康”理念为促进农业和贸易的可持续发展,改善公共卫生,粮农组织推动“同一健康”理念。其宗旨是控制和减少动植物疫病的影响以及其他公共卫生威胁,特别是跨界动物疫病(TADs)和抗微生物药耐药性(AMR),从而增加粮食安全及人类健康和营养,促进贸易。

自2010年10月以来,在“同一健康”的理念之下,粮农组织及其合作伙伴成功开展了中国兽医现场流行病学培训项目(CFETPV)。自项目实施以来,共培养133名学员,学员们开展了61次针对疫情爆发的调查以及120多项流行病学研究,并为各级兽医机构开展培训,累计达7000多人次。学员们还在全国范围内参与到甲型H7N9流感、小反刍兽疫(PPR)等突发公共卫生事件的响应中。

跨国技术转让中国在农业发展方面树立了很好的榜样,并且在知识、优秀实践、政策、技术和资源等方面积累了丰富的经验和技巧,这些都可以与其它发展中国家共同分享。作为粮农组织“南南合作”(SSC)最重要的合作伙伴和最大贡献者,中国从1996年开始就以信托基金的方式为28个国家的农业和农村发展提供了8000万美金的援助。中国向其他国家派遣了超过1000名专家,为它们在包括灌溉、水产养殖、园艺、牲畜养殖、农作物生产、农林业、农业机械化和农业综合经营等技术领域提供了帮助。。

 

粮农组织和“一带一路”倡议

由中国国家主席习近平提出的“海上丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路”倡议期望能够为到2030年实现的可持续发展目标(SDGs)做出重大贡献,该倡议的成功实施需要得到各利益相关方的大力支持和积极参与。

由于大多数一带一路沿线国家属于发展中国家,因此农业在其经济发展中占据了主导地位。在许多东南亚、南亚、中亚和非洲国家,农业在国民生产总值中的份额超过了25%,对国家经济的整体发展起着突出作用。更重要的是,在许多国家,农业在就业中的比重超过了百分之四十,因此农业的健康发展对确保粮食和营养安全、保护自然资源和生物多样性、促进生态文明建设以及为农民创造收入和解决生计尤为关键,这些都是保证社会和政治稳定的根本,也是可持续发展和一带一路倡议取得整体成功必不可少的前提所在。

粮农组织作为联合国专门负责粮食和农业的机构,为促进一带一路沿线国家在农业可持续发展和粮食安全方面的相互协作提供了独一无二的交流平台。

2016年6月,粮农组织和中国农业部共同签署了谅解备忘录,旨在“一带一路”倡议框架下,进一步加深双方在农业和粮食安全方面的战略合作。

这份战略框架文件的愿景是到2030年,通过加强农业食品系统的联通性和合作伙伴关系,以农业创新和技术合作,消除一带一路区域的贫困和饥饿,增进繁荣,并最终加强与全球市场的联系,促进农业多样化和可持续发展。这份框架文件还将致力于探讨新的合作模式、治理机制和公私伙伴关系,从而为农业食品链吸引更多的投资;扩展生产链的生产能力;实现与其它国际组织、国家或金融机构的三方合作;改进和提升现有的南南合作模式;确保技术创新能够得到应用;引进互联网+和电子商务的概念;并通过各种国际会议和平台进行知识的交流和传播。

合作伙伴关系及创新粮农组织在中国的新聚焦

为了推动中国和一带一路沿线国家的农业发展,中国政府起草了一系列的文件,如2016年发布的《中国落实2030年可持续发展议程国别方案》和今年发表的《共同推进“一带一路”建设农业合作的愿景与行动》,都是为了加速本地和国际竞争力的转型,促进科技创新,关注新型合作形式对发展产生的效益和影响。

多年来,粮农组织一直致力于在全球、地区和国家层面上发展与公共机构、私营部门和民间社会团体的伙伴关系。粮农组织伙伴关系战略的目标就是要调动资源,利用技术创新和知识传播,帮助小农户发展生产,提高产量,并且在社会各方的帮助下(包括企业、合作生产组织),将其生产的产品融入市场价值链。

为了在中国和其它地区促进采用创新实践,粮农组织将继续加强与中国的南南合作计划,与合作方和受援国一道,推广在农业可待续发展和减贫方面的创新解决方案。

2017年5月,粮农组织还在上海成功地举办了一次呼吁减少食物损失和浪费的活动。这是粮农组织的一次创新之旅,希望提高人们的意识,认识到食品链中的损失和浪费对生态足迹以及对经济造成的影响。

6月,粮农组织又与清华大学在北京共同举办了一次减少中国食物损失和浪费的创新实验室(AgLab CX)工作坊。这次工作坊是又一项重大的实践,参与者来自国际组织、政府部门、研究机构、媒体和私营企业,大家在专家和导师的指导下,畅所欲言,集思广益,探讨原型项目,开发创新工具,寻求在整个食品供应和消费价值链中减少食品损失和浪费的解决方案。(编辑:张梅)

案例

这些项目通过与国内和国际合作伙伴和捐助者合作,为社区、家庭和个人在改善粮食安全和民生方面给予了很大的支持。

 

农民田间学校

农民田间学校(FFS)是一种以人为本的学习方法。这种参与式方法营造出一种有利于学习的环境:参与者可以在无风险的场合下交流知识和经验。这样的实践练习通过亲自观察、集体讨论和制定决策的过程让参与者做到了学以致用。学员在当地生态系统和社会经济背景下,现场对知识和科学理论进行测试和证明,并将不同的知识、理论和信息综合起来使用。基于社区的问题分析是农民田间学校的切入点,并在此基础上设计出一套适应当地需求的课程安排。现在越来越多的技术专题在农民田间学校得到探讨,包括:土壤、农作物和水分控制、种子繁殖与品种鉴定、病虫害综合防治(IPM)、农业畜牧业、水产养殖、农林复合经营、营养、价值链以及产品与市场的关系等。

农民田间学校为当地农民以小组为单位的实践学习、增强批判性分析技能和提高制定决策的能力创造了条件。学校的活动都是在田间进行的,能够充分反映当地特定的环境,包括为解决问题所安排的实验。参与者通过观察、分析和在自己的田里尝试新方法,使自身的技能有所提升,改善生产和生活。农民田间学校的形式还增强了个人、农户和社区赋权以及凝聚力。

二十多年来,粮农组织向政府提供了重要援助,建设农民田间学校。它开始于上世纪九十年代初,是对农民进行培训的一种创新和成功的方法,重点关注针对大米、棉花和蔬菜的病虫害综合治理。这些培训措施对降低农药风险、增加农民利润、提高粮食安全、改善环境和人类健康,对农业生物多样性保护与利用都产生了重大影响。因此现在地方政府都愿意使用他们的自有资金来扶持该项目。

 

健康的食物——农业与家庭营养之间的纽带

粮农组织通过参加一个联合国联合项目,在中国正式引入了一种基于食物的连贯的营养改善方法。通过与中国农业部和中国疾病预防控制中心的密切合作,这一概念在云南和贵州省的三个县予以试行,并制定了农业和营养综合干预措施。

在少数民族聚居的项目试行地区,当地种植的富含维生素A和铁的蔬菜产量出现增长,富含微量营养元素的食物摄入量增加,妇女和家庭的膳食多样性得到改善。该项目还开展营养教育活动,制定了《营养教育战略文件》。工作人员还编写了家庭营养手册,其中纳入了国家营养建议和粮农组织全球指导原则,并向八个试点乡村的2000多户家庭发放。这些创新举措极大改善了当地农民与营养有关的知识、态度和实践。

 

全球重要农业文化遗产计划(GIAHS)

2005年,中国成为了首批最先参与该体系的国家,并成为积极推动该计划的主要国家之一。在37项全球重要农业文化遗产中占有11项。全球重要农业文化遗产计划在中国不仅保护和改良了具有全球重要性的农业生物多样性、本土知识体系和具有适应力的生态系统,同时也促进了减贫,改善了贫困人口和小农户的生计。

 

减贫和“南南合作”知识共享平台

这些年来,中国在减贫方面取得了巨大成就,并且积累了许多有益的经验,特别是自2015年开始,中国发起了消除贫困的攻坚战。通过其中国—非洲农村减贫知识分享平台和培训等方式,粮农组织也致力于促进减贫政策的推广和相关知识的共享。粮农组织与中国国际扶贫中心、联合国国际包容性增长政策中心首次组织了题为“结束贫困对话”的在线研讨会,这次在线研讨会是农村减贫系列活动之一。这次在线研讨会重点介绍了中国在“南南合作”过程中帮助撒哈拉以南的非洲和亚洲成功减贫的经验。

上个月粮农组织与中国国际扶贫中心、中国互联网信息中心、世界银行和亚洲开发银行共同主办了国际减贫论坛,并在论坛上宣布成立全球减贫案例数据库及在线分享平台。这个数据库旨在收集和分享对中国和世界各地用户都适用的在减贫方面的好的做法和经验,同时将为各国在实现联合国可持续发展目标1(消除贫困)的进程中提供非常有帮助的参考资料。


FAO and China, Fruitful Past and Prosperous Future

by Dr Vincent Martin, Representative of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO) in China

The Food and Agriculture Organization of theUnited Nations (FAO) is an agency of the United Nations that leadsinternational efforts to defeat hunger.

FAO is a source of knowledge andinformation, and helps developing countries and countries in transitionmodernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuringgood nutrition and food security for all. Its Latin motto, fiat panis,translates as "let there be bread".

FAO analyzes and shares key informationabout food, agriculture and natural resources in the form of global publicgoods. But this is not a one-way flow. It plays a connector role, throughidentifying and working with different partners with established expertise, andfacilitating a dialogue between those who have the knowledge and those who needit. By turning knowledge into action, FAO links the field to national, regionaland global initiatives in a mutually reinforcing cycle. By joining forces, itfacilitates partnerships for food and nutrition security, agriculture and ruraldevelopment between governments, development partners, civil society and theprivate sector.

 

FAO and China Cooperation

Ever since the establishment of theRepresentation in the country in 1982, FAO and China have established andmaintained a concrete and tight relationship of cooperation, especially in thefields of food security and agricultural development. Throughout the past 40years, FAO has provided a wide range of technical support and had implementedmore than 400 field projects in China targeting tens of millions ofbeneficiaries across the country, with both regular and extra-budgetary funding.

These projects have covered the areas ofagricultural policies and strategies, food security and nutrition, fisheries,forestry, environment, climate change and sustainable natural resourcesmanagement, crop intensification, livestock development, transboundary animaland plant diseases and pests control and prevention (EMPRES), emergenciespreparedness, relief and rehabilitation and South-South Cooperation.

Positioning FAO’s work in the country forthe years from 2016 to 2020, the Country Programming Framework (CPF) aims tosupport sustainable domestic agriculture development, whilst at the same timefacilitating China’s engagement in the regional and global agriculturedevelopment agenda, especially in the context of the Belt and Road Initiative.

Linking national agriculture developmentplans with FAO comparative advantages, the CPF for China (2016-2020) sets outfour priority areas for joint collaboration, including:

Combating food insecurity while addressingclimate change. To support China’s sustainable intensification of agriculturalproduction, FAO promotes innovative interventions to bring greater value toongoing national initiatives. Novel practices of global agriculturaldevelopment including but not limited to agro-ecological approaches, climate-smartagriculture, nutrition sensitive agriculture, sustainable and inclusive foodvalue chains,  Information &Communication Technology and E-agriculture, have been mainstreamed by means ofpolicy advice and development support, awareness-raising, capacity building,institutional networking  and, whereuseful, pilot initiatives in the field. In addition, FAO has also beenpromoting the development of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems(GIAHS). The concept of GIAHS is distinct from, and more complex than, aconventional heritage site or protected area/landscape. A GIAHS is a living,involving system of human communities in an intricate relationship with theirterritory, cultural or agricultural landscape or biophysical and wider social environment.

Supporting China’s poverty alleviation. Togetherwith partners, FAO is designing programmes to support poverty reduction inChina by bringing in its expertise in order to empower the rural poor and theirorganizations, promote decent rural employment and rural social protection. Inaddition, a number of countries have demonstrated a great interest in adaptingChina experience to their national context. In this regard, FAO is mappingChina’s experience in poverty reduction with a view to sharing it with otherdeveloping countries.

Promoting the “One Health” approach.  FAO promotes a “One Health” approach forsustainable agriculture and improved public health. The aim is to manage andreduce the impact of animal and plant diseases and other public health threats,especially Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs) and Antimicrobial Resistance(AMR), thus improving food safety and human health and nutrition, whileenhancing trade flows.

FAO and its partners have been successfullyconducting the China Field Epidemiology Training Programme for Veterinarians(CFETPV) through the “One Health” approach since October 2010. Since itsinception, 133 graduates have conducted 61 outbreak investigations and morethan 120 epidemiological studies. Training sessions have benefited more than7,000 participants engaged in national response to H7N9, peste des petitsruminants (PPR) and other disease emergencies in the field.

Global knowledge transfer. China sets anexample in the area of agricultural development and has accumulated a wealth ofexperience and techniques, including knowledge, good practices, policies,technology and resources, to share with the rest of the developing world. Asone of the most important partners and largest contributors in FAO’sSouth-South Cooperation (SSC) Programmes, China has, since 1996, providedsupports to agricultural and rural development in 28 countries, through itstrust fund in the amount of USD 80 million. China has dispatched over 1,000experts to countries around the world, working on a wide range of technicalareas, including irrigation, aquaculture, horticulture, livestock, cropproduction, agroforestry, agricultural mechanization and agribusiness.

 

FAO and the “B&R” Initiative

“The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road” (“B&R”)initiative proposed by Xi Jinping, the President of China, is expected to yielda significant contribution to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGS) by 2030. Its successful implementation will require strong support andactive participation of various stakeholders.

As most of the countries along the “B&R”initiative are developing ones, agriculture is still a dominant economicsector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP in many countries in SoutheastAsia, South Asia, Central Asia and Africa. Thus, it must play a key role inoverall national economic development. More importantly, agriculture stillaccounts for more than 40% of employment in many of these countries, making thesector’s health crucial for ensuring food and nutrition security preservingnatural resources and biodiversity, and promoting eco-civilization building, aswell as generating income and sustainable livelihoods for rural farmers so asto ensure social and political stability that is essential to sustainabledevelopment and the overall success of the “B&R” initiative.

FAO, as the leading United Nationsspecialized agency in food and agriculture, provides a unique forum forfacilitating mutual collaboration among countries along the “B&R” in thearea of sustainable agriculture development and food security.

In June 2016, FAO and the Ministry ofAgriculture of China signed a Memorandum of Understanding to further strengthentheir strategic cooperation on agriculture and food security under theframework of the “B&R” initiative.

The vision underlying this strategicframework document is the eradication of poverty and hunger and increasedprosperity in the “B&R” regions by 2030, through agricultural innovationsand technology cooperation on improved connectivity and partnerships in theiragri-food systems, leading to stronger connections to global markets, greateragricultural diversification and more sustainable development. This frameworkstrives to develop novel cooperation models and governance mechanisms,public-private partnerships to attract investments in agri-food chain andextend the production chains, tripartite cooperation involving otherinternational organizations or countries and funding institutions, improvementand upscaling of the existing South-South Cooperation modality, innovativeapplications and introduction of Internet Plus and e-commerce, communication anddissemination of knowledge through various international conferences andplatforms.

 

Partnership and Innovation, FAO China’sfuture focus

In order to push forward agriculturaldevelopment of China and countries alongside the Belt and Road, the Chinese governmentlaunched a series of documents, such as the 2030 Agenda for SustainableDevelopment (the 2030 Agenda) in 2016 and the recent Vision and Actions onjointly promoting agricultural cooperation and building construction of theBelt and Road in May 2017. The objective is to accelerate transformation ofcompetitiveness locally and internationally, facilitate science and technologyinnovation, and pay attention to the effectiveness and impact of new forms ofcooperation for development.

FAO has been developing partnerships withpublic institutions, the private sector and civil society for many years atglobal, regional and national levels. FAO’s Strategy for Partnership aims tomobilize resources, technological innovation, and knowledge dissemination tohelp small farmers develop production, increase output and integrate into themarket value chain, with support from all sectors of society, includingenterprises, cooperative and producer organizations.

To foster the adoption of innovativepractices in China and beyond, FAO will continue to strengthen its South-SouthCooperation programme with China and promote innovative solutions with partnersand recipient countries for sustainable agriculture development and povertyreduction.

In May 2017, FAO China also successfullyheld a public event on food loss and waste in Shanghai, which started FAO’sjourney for innovation by raising awareness on the ecological footprint andeconomic impact of food loss and waste along the food chain.

One month later, an Innovation Lab (AgLabCX) Session on Reducing Food Loss and Waste in China was also held in Beijing,co-organized with Tsinghua University. This session has been another importantexperiment where participants from international organizations, government, academia,media and the private sector were able to have an open discussion and draw oncollective wisdom under the guidance of experts and mentors, explore prototypesand develop innovative tools, to identify solutions for reducing food loss andwaste along the entire food supply and consumption value chain. 

Case

Aligned with FAO’s mission to China, thefollowing projects illustrate how FAO, working with national and internationalpartners and donors, is supporting communities, families and individuals toimprove their food security and livelihoods.

Farmer Field School

Farmer Field School (FFS) is an approachbased on people-centred learning. Participatory methods to create anenvironment conducive to learning: the participants can exchange knowledge andexperience in a risk free setting. Practical field exercises using directobservation, discussion and decision making encourage learning-by-doing. Thefield is the space where local knowledge and outside scientific insights aretested, validated and integrated, in the context of local ecosystem andsocio-economic settings. Community-based problem analysis is the entry pointfor a FFS group to develop a location specific curriculum. A growing range oftechnical topics are being addressed through FFS: soil, crop and watermanagement, seeds multiplication and varietal testing, IPM, agropastoralism,aquaculture, agroforestry, nutrition, value chain, and link to markets, etc.

A Farmer Field School offers space forhands-on group learning, enhancing skills for critical analysis and improveddecision making by local people. FFS activities are field based, includeexperimentation to solve problems, reflecting a specific local context.Participants learn how to improve skills through observing, analysing andtrying out new ideas on their own fields, contributing to improved productionand livelihoods.  The FFS processenhances individual, household and community empowerment and cohesion.

FAO has provided pivotal assistance to thegovernment on FFS-based participatory capacity building for more than 20 years.The Farmers Field School was set up in the early 1990s with an innovative andsuccessful approach to farmer training, focusing on integrated pest managementfor rice and cotton, and later vegetables. These training interventions havebeen shown to have significant impact on pesticide risk reduction, farmers’profits, food safety, environmental and human health improvement andagro-biodiversity conservation and utilization. Local governments are nowactively supporting the programmes with their own funds.

 

Healthy Food – the link betweenagriculture and household nutrition

A coherent food-based approach for betternutrition was officially introduced to China through FAO’s participation in aUN Joint Programme. In close partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture andthe Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, the concept was pilotedin three counties of Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces with the development ofintegrated agricultural and nutrition interventions.

In the target areas populated by ethnicminority groups, improvements have been achieved in the production of locallyplanted vegetables rich in Vitamin A and iron, consumption ofmicronutrient-rich foods, and dietary diversity among women and households. ANutrition Education Strategy Paper was formulated as the result of thenutrition education campaign conducted with the project. Family nutritionmanuals, incorporating the national nutrition recommendations as well as FAOglobal guidelines, were also developed and rolled out to more than 2,000households in eight pilot villages. The initiative resulted in significantimprovement in local farmers’ nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes andpractices.

 

Global Important Agriculture HeritageSystems (GIAHS)

China was one of the first pioneeringcountries in 2005 and has become the lead country in promoting GIAHS, boasting11 out of the 37 enlisted GIAHS sites worldwide. The GIAHS programme in Chinaresults not only in the maintenance and adaptation of globally significantagricultural biodiversity, indigenous knowledge systems and resilientecosystems, but it also contributes to poverty reduction and improvesimpoverished and small-scale farmers’ livelihoods.

 

Knowledge Sharing Platform for povertyreduction and South-South Cooperation

Over the years, China has made remarkableachievements in poverty reduction and accumulated a number of good practices,especially since China launched the battle to eradicate poverty in 2015. FAO iscommitted to facilitate poverty reduction policy and knowledge sharing, such asthrough its China-Africa rural poverty reduction knowledge exchange platformand trainings. FAO organized the first webinar of the series Rural PovertyReduction – End Poverty Talks – in partnership with the International PovertyReduction Centre of China and the International Policy Centre for InclusiveGrowth. The webinar introduced the experience of China in SSC for povertyreduction in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

Recently during an international povertyreduction forum last month co-hosted by FAO, the International PovertyReduction Centre in China, the China Internet Information Centre, World Bankand ADB, the five co-hosts jointly launched the Global Poverty Reduction OnlineKnowledge Sharing Database. The database aims to collect and share povertyreduction good practices which are technically replicable for both China andworldwide users. This will be a useful source of reference for countries asthey are working to achieve SDG1 (No Poverty).