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中国驻肯尼亚大使孙保红 :打造中非命运共同体的典范

打造中非命运共同体的典范

文 | 孙保红   中国驻肯尼亚大使

导读:无论是两国发展战略对接的契合度,还是双方民众对中肯友好合作的支持度,都充分表明中肯务实合作有理由、有条件继续走在中国与其他非洲国家合作的前列,成为打造中非命运共同体的典范。

⬆孙保红

中国驻肯尼亚大使

肯尼亚是人类发源地之一,山川壮美,风光迤逦,野生动物资源闻名于世,赤道与东非大裂谷贯穿其东西、南北,形成著名的“东非十字架”。这里的人民崇尚自然、热爱和平,勤劳质朴、亲切友善,44个部族和谐共生,多元文明彼此交融,创造了独特的斯瓦希里文化。自1963年独立以工来,肯尼亚经济社会持续发展,已成为东非地区的商业、金融、国际交往中心和交通枢纽。首都内罗毕是一座“阳光下的绿城”,联合国环境署、人居署以及众多国际商业机构的地区总部设立于此。肯尼亚还拥有东非第一大港口蒙巴萨港,辐射乌干达、卢旺达等多个内陆邻国。近年来,肯尼亚经济保持较快增长,政治社会稳定,法律制度健全。世界银行2018年世界营商环境报告显示,肯尼亚营商环境指数位列非洲第三,内罗毕是最受外商投资青睐的非洲城市之一。

中国同肯尼亚友好交往的历史源远流长。据《郑和航海图》等史料记载,郑和船队600年前从江苏、福建出发,经东南亚,跨印度洋,一路向西,最远抵达非洲东海岸的“慢八撒”、“麻林地”,就是今天肯尼亚的蒙巴萨和马林迪。郑和给非洲带来瓷器、丝绸和茶叶,马林迪国王派使节随船队回访中国,将长颈鹿带到南京,并由明朝宫廷画师绘成《瑞应麒麟图》,成为传诵至今的历史佳话。肯尼亚沿海发现的中国古瓷数量之多,堪称非洲之最。与非洲的奴隶海岸、象牙海岸、黄金海岸截然不同的是,肯尼亚的海岸线娓娓诉说着友谊与合作的故事,也昭示着海上丝绸之路强大的生命力和影响力。正如肯尼亚总统肯雅塔所言,“‘郑和下西洋’在肯尼亚播撒了友谊的种子,肯尼亚自古就是连接非洲与中国的重要纽带。”

今天,在习近平主席提出的“一带一路”倡议号召下,新时代中肯友好合作的动人故事正在肯尼亚这片沃土上续写。在“东非门户”蒙巴萨港,曾经的舟楫相望、帆影交错已被穿梭往来的巨型远洋货轮所取代。为便利蒙巴萨与内罗毕之间的物流和人员往来,提升肯尼亚基础设施水平,中肯建设者共同架设了一条现代化铁路,实现了肯尼亚人民的百年梦想。在两国政府和4万多名建设者的并肩努力下,472公里的蒙内铁路仅用两年半就建成通车。双方合作运营一年多以来,蒙内铁路已安全运送140多名万旅客和100多万吨货物。乘坐铁路列车的人们不仅能欣赏到壮阔的自然风光,更能感受到铁路给沿线经济社会发展带来的新活力与新气象。这项肯尼亚史上最大的基础设施工程是中非产能合作先行先试的成功典范,全部采用中国标准、装备、技术和运营管理,开启了中国铁路全产业链走出去的崭新模式,为未来东非铁路网建设打下了坚实基础,也为新时代中非基础设施建设合作积累了多方面的经验。铁路沿线“路港区”经济带的规划与建设将更大程度地发挥铁路的发展带动效应。随着蒙巴萨至奈瓦沙段明年建成,这条合作共赢之路、生态环保之路、繁荣发展之路将穿越恩贡山、进入大裂谷,继续向非洲腹地延伸。

中非联合研究中心是中肯合作转型升级的又一项标志性工程。这是中国在非洲援助设立的第一个综合性产学研机构,是中非科技创新合作的一座里程碑。它以保护生物多样性、防治荒漠化、示范现代农业、推广可持续发展为合作重点,为来自中非及其他地区的科学家提供生物资源管理、地理遥感监测、流行病学等研究领域的开放式平台,帮助非洲培养高端人才、提升科研水平。中心投入使用以来,已为非洲国家培养了30多名硕士和博士,在灾害和疾病防控、农作物品种培育、非洲传统药物应用等方面取得多项科研成果,正发挥出越来越明显的带动和辐射效应。

蒙内铁路和中非联合研究中心是中肯“一带一路”合作的两大早期收获,是推进中肯基础设施建设和高新技术合作的两大引擎,也是构建中非命运共同体的生动写照,充分体现了共商、共建、共享的丝路精神和真实亲诚对非合作方针。中共十八大以来,在构建人类命运共同体理念指引下,在 “一带一路”倡议推动下,中肯关系实现跨越式发展,已提升为全面战略合作伙伴关系。双方高层交往频密,政治互信不断增强,民意基础持续巩固,在国际和地区事务中密切协调,各领域务实合作的广度和深度日益拓展。肯尼亚执政党朱比利党迫切希望借鉴中国共产党成功经验,双方治国理政交流方兴未艾。肯尼亚作为“一带一路”在非洲的桥头堡和战略支点,是中方推进“一带一路”倡议和中非产能合作的重要伙伴。中国已成为肯尼亚第一大贸易伙伴、第一大投资来源国、第一大工程承包方。在肯政府公布的30多个“旗舰项目”中,超过一半是中肯合作项目。中国企业帮助肯尼亚实现信息网络全覆盖和数字电视“村村通”。CGTN等中国电视和广播节目实现本土化落地,架起“民心相通”的空中桥梁。在肯孔子学院从非洲第一所发展到四所,汉语教学点涵盖不同地区和层级的教学机构。中方还帮助肯尼亚建设多所医院,设立疟疾防治中心,提供扶贫和减灾援助,实实在在地造福当地民众。肯尼亚赴华留学人数和中国来肯旅游人数屡创新高,两国人文交流展现出前所未有的生机与活力。

长期以来,中国与非洲同呼吸、共命运,始终彼此尊重、相互帮助、平等相待、真诚友好。60年前,民族解放浪潮席卷非洲大陆,中非人民在争取民族独立解放的事业中风雨同舟,非洲国家掀起同中国建交的热潮。60年后,中非在寻求国家发展与人民幸福的道路上携手并进,在国际舞台上密切配合,共同维护广大发展中国家利益。当前,发展仍是非洲最紧迫的任务。非盟《2063年议程》将非洲工业化确定为核心发展目标。肯尼亚作为撒哈拉以南经济基础较好的国家,也正在积极推进经济转型,颁布了致力于实现工农业现代化的《2030年远景规划》和“四大发展目标”。“一带一路”倡议提出以来,受到非洲各国特别是肯尼亚政府与社会各界的积极响应和热烈欢迎。非盟委员会主席法基表示,非洲需要加强对外合作、推进发展议程,“一带一路”的实施将进一步推动中非合作,助力非洲发展。肯尼亚总统、外长、交通部长等官员多次表示,肯方看好“一带一路”促进各国共同发展的光明前景,愿主动将本国发展战略与“一带一路”倡议进行对接,实现中国与肯尼亚及东非地区的合作共赢。肯智库和媒体精英也认为,“一带一路”倡议立意高远,合作发展理念符合非洲实际。在“一带一路”框架下实施的中非产能合作与互联互通,不仅事关全球三分之一人口的福祉,也是非洲和肯尼亚现代化事业的重大机遇,并已经为非洲带来了“看得见、摸得着”的实惠。随着蒙内铁路通车运营,肯尼亚和非洲各界对“一带一路”的关注度与日俱增,希望搭乘中国新一轮对外开放快车的热切心情溢于言表。今年4月,由国际主流民调益普索(IPSOS)发布的调查报告显示,中国在肯尼亚的影响力首次超过美国,成为肯尼亚民众最值得信赖的合作伙伴。

无论是中肯传统友好的历史渊源,还是建交55年来双边关系的全面深入发展;无论是两国发展战略对接的契合度,还是双方民众对中肯友好合作的支持度,都充分表明中肯务实合作有理由、有条件继续走在中国与其他非洲国家合作的前列,成为打造中非命运共同体的典范。中非合作论坛峰会将于9月举行,中非领导人再次齐聚北京,回顾总结约翰内斯堡峰会以来的合作成果,规划新时代合作蓝图,共商引领合作发展、构建中非命运共同体的重大举措。通过此次峰会,中肯合作也必将结出新的累累硕果。

“志合者,不以山海为远”。习近平主席号召大家“撸起袖子加油干”,肯雅塔总统呼吁民众Harambee(斯瓦希里语,意为“团结一致向前进”)。“一带一路”在肯尼亚的实践与成果充分证明,在全球化深入发展的今天,各国利益深度交融,互为合作发展的机遇与平台。特别是在保护主义、单边主义等逆全球化思潮抬头的形势下,“一带一路”这一中国智慧和中国方案,已成为令各方受益的重要国际公共产品,不仅有助于推动经济全球化朝着更加普惠、包容的方向实现“再平衡”,也成为构建合作共赢的新型国际关系和人类命运共同体的重要实践。当前,中肯关系站在新的历史起点上,展现出广阔而光明的发展前景。中方将与肯尼亚和非洲各国一道,从顺应历史潮流、增进人类福祉出发,以深入推进“一带一路”建设为契机,携手应对前进道路上的挑战,推动更大范围、更高水平、更深层次的大开放、大交流、大融合,助力非洲现代化发展事业,增进中非人民友好情谊,推动中非、中肯全面战略合作伙伴关系再上新台阶。

⬆中国承建的内马铁路项目

英文版:

H.E.  Sun Baohong

Ambassador of  China to Kenya

Kenya is one of the birthplaces of mankind. It has magnificent mountains and rivers, its scenery is beautiful, and it is famous for its wild animal resources. The equator and the Great Rift Valley of East Africa run through its east, west and north, forming the well-known "East African Cross". The friendly people of the country respect nature, love peace and work hard. Forty-four tribes in the country co-exist in a harmonious way, and their diverse civilizations blend with each other to form a unique Swahili culture. Since its independence in 1963, Kenya’s economic and social development has been at the center of business, finance, cross-border exchange and transportation in East Africa. Its capital, Nairobi, is a “green city under the sun” with regional headquarters of UNEP, UN-Habitat and numerous international business organizations. Kenya also owns the port of Mombasa, the largest port in East Africa. The port is benefiting landlocked neighbors such as Uganda and Rwanda. In recent years, Kenya has maintained rapid economic growth, political and social stability, and a solid legal system. According to the World Bank's 2018 World Business Environment Report, Kenya's Doing Business Index ranks third in Africa, and Nairobi is one of the most popular African cities for foreign investors.

The friendly exchanges between China and Kenya have a long history. According to historical records such as "Zheng He Nautical Chart", Zheng He’s fleet set off from China’s Jiangsu and Fujian 600 years ago, sailed through Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean all the way to “Manbasa" and "Malin" on the east coast of Africa. The two places are Mombasa and Malindi in today’s Kenya. Zheng He brought porcelain, silk and tea to Africa. In return, envoys of the Malindi King travelled with Zheng’s fleet to China, bringing giraffes to Nanjing, the then capital of China. Royal painters of the Ming Dynasty painted a well-known picture based on the giraffes they saw. Many Chinese ancient porcelain items have been found in Africa, and Kenya claims the highest number in this regard. In stark contrast to the some other African coastlines which involved slavery and exploitation of resources in history, Kenya’s coastline tells a story of friendship, and it also demonstrates the vitality and influence of the Maritime Silk Road. As Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta has said, Zheng He spread the seeds of friendship in Kenya. Kenya has been an important link between Africa and China since ancient times.

Today, under President Xi Jinping’s Belt and Road Initiative, friendly cooperation between China and Kenya is continuing. At the Port of Mombasa, giant modern cargo ships have replaced traditional vessels. In order to facilitate logistics and personnel exchanges between Mombasa and Nairobi, China and Kenya jointly built a modern railway, realizing a long-standing dream of the Kenyan people. With the joint efforts of the two governments and more than 40,000 workers, the construction of the 472-kilometer Mombasa–Nairobi Railway was completed in only two and a half years. More than a year after its operation began, the railway has transported more than 140 million passengers and more than 1 million tons of cargo. People traveling on the rail line can not only enjoy the magnificent scenery outside, but also sense the vitality brought by the railway to the economic and social development along the route. This largest infrastructure project in Kenya's history is a good example of China-Africa cooperation in capacity building. The project, which has adopted Chinese standards, equipment, technology and management skills, has set a model on how China’s railway industry can go global in the future. It has also laid a solid foundation for future cooperation between China and Africa. With the planned completion of a new section connecting Mombasa with Naivasha next year, this railway is set to pass through the Ngong Hills, enter the Great Rift Valley and extend to the hinterland of Africa, symbolizing the win-win cooperation, the successful practice of ecological protection and a path to prosperity. 

The China-Africa Joint Research Center is another landmark China-Kenya cooperation project. This is the first comprehensive research institute China has helped set up in Africa, and is a milestone in China-Africa scientific and technological cooperation. It focuses on protecting biodiversity, combating desertification, developing modern agriculture, and promoting sustainable development. It provides an open platform for scientists from Central Africa and other regions to do research on biological resources, remote sensing, and epidemiology. Since its inception, the center has helped train more than 30 masters and doctors from different African countries, and has achieved a number of research results in prevention of disaster and disease, cultivation of crop variety, and application of traditional African medicine. These results are starting to generate benefits.

The Mombasa-Nairobi Railway and the China-Africa Joint Research Center are two early-stage harvest of the cooperation under framework of the Belt and Road Initiative. The railway and the research center are the two engines to enhance infrastructure construction and high-tech cooperation. They are also a vivid portrayal of the China-Africa Community of Shared Future, which embraces the spirit of sharing, co-construction, and sincerity. Following the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, under the guidance of building a community of shared future, under the influence of the Belt and Road Initiative, the China-Kenya relationship has been upgraded to a comprehensive strategic partnership. The high-level exchanges between the two sides have been frequent, political mutual trust has been continuously enhanced, and bilateral coordination in international and regional affairs has been closely coordinated. Both the width and depth of cooperation in various fields have been expanding. In governance, Kenya’s ruling Jubilee Party is eager to learn from the Communist Party of China. The political exchanges between the two sides are in the ascendant. As a spearhead and strategically-important point in the Belt and Road Initiative, Kenya is an important partner of China to promote the initiative and China-Africa industrial capacity cooperation. China has become Kenya's largest trading partner, its largest source of foreign investment, and its largest engineering contractor. Of the over 30 “flagship projects” announced by the Kenyan government, more than half are invested by the Chinese. Chinese companies have helped Kenya achieve a full coverage of information networks and digital TV networks. Chinese TV and radio channels such as CGTN have been localized, becoming a bridge on air to link the peoples of the two sides. The number of Confucius Institute in Kenya has grown from one to four. China has also helped Kenya build a number of hospitals, set up malaria prevention and treatment centers, provide poverty alleviation and disaster relief assistance. The number of Kenyan students studying in China and the number of Chinese tourists travelling to Kenya have both hit record highs. Cultural exchanges between the two countries are showing unprecedented vitality.

For a long time in history, China and Africa had shared a same fate, always respected each other, helped each other, treated each other as equals. Sixty years ago, when independence movement swept across Africa, Chinese people fought together with African people to help the continent gain independence and liberation. A wave of African countries established diplomatic relations with China later on. Now, China and Africa are joining hands to seek development and enhance people's happiness, and are closely cooperating on the international arena to safeguard the interests of developing countries. At present, development is still the most urgent task for Africa. The African Union's "2063 Agenda" is defining industrialization as a core goal of Africa. As a country with a relatively sound economic foundation in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya is actively working to transform its economy, having released the "Vision 2030" and "Four Development Goals" which seek to modernize its industrial and agricultural sectors. Since the launch of the Belt and Road Initiative, the initiative has received positive response from African countries. The government and all walks of life in Kenya are especially interested and active to participate in the initiative. The Chairman of the AU Commission, Moussa Faki Mahamat, has said that Africa needs to strengthen cooperation with outsiders to advance its development agenda. The implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” will further promote China-Africa cooperation, helping Africa to develop.

Kenyan President, Foreign Minister, Minister of Communications and other officials have repeatedly said that Kenya is optimistic about the future of the “Belt and Road”. Kenya is willing to align its development strategy with the Belt and Road Initiative to realize win-win cooperation. Kenyan scholars and the media also believe that the Belt and Road Initiative is far-reaching and the concept of cooperative development is in line with African realities. China-Africa capacity and connectivity building under the framework of the “Belt and Road Initiative” is not only related to the welfare of one-third of the world's population, but also a major opportunity to modernize Africa. With the opening of the Mombasa-Nairobi Railway, Kenya and the African community are paying more and more attention to the “Belt and Road”, and their hope to benefit from China’s new round of opening-up is obvious. In April this year, a poll released by Paris-based consulting firm Ipsos Group showed that China’s influence in Kenya had exceeded that of the United States for the first time, becoming the most trusted partner of the Kenyan people.

Both the history and the current interaction between China and Kenya are telling us that there are plenty of reasons for the China-Kenya relationship to become a model in the wider China-Africa relations. The China-Africa Cooperation Forum Summit meeting will be held in Beijing next month. The leaders of China and Africa will once again meet in the Chinese capital to review the cooperation results after the Johannesburg Summit in 2015, work out a blueprint for cooperation in the new era, and discuss major initiatives as part of a broader plan to create a China-Africa Community of Shared Future. Through this summit, China-Kenya cooperation is surely to also bear new fruits.

"Those who share similar goals and ambitions can’t be separated by mountains and oceans," President Xi Jinping once said when he described the China-Africa relations. Xi has called on the Chinese people to "roll up their sleeves and work harder". Meanwhile, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta has called on his people to Harambee, which means “to unite and move forward”. The practice and achievements of the “Belt and Road Initiative” in Kenya have fully proved that in a globalized era, the interests of all countries are deeply intertwined, and there are opportunities and platforms for mutual development. Against the backdrop of rising protectionism, unilateralism and other anti-globalization trends, the Belt and Road Initiative, China’s wisdom and China’s solutions have become an important international public good that benefits all parties. To achieve "rebalancing" in a more inclusive way has also become an important practice in building a new type of international relationship and a community of common for humankind. At present, the China-Kenya relations are standing at a new starting point, showing broad and bright prospects. China will work with Kenya and other African countries to enhance the well-beings of humans, and to deepen the construction of the “Belt and Road Initiative” to jointly tackle the challenges ahead. China, Kenya and other African countries will continue to promote opening-up, communication and integration among countries in a larger scope, with higher standards and at deeper levels, so as to facilitate the cause of modernization in Africa, reinforce the China-Africa friendship, advance the comprehensive strategic partnership between China and Kenya as well as the relationship between China and Africa to a higher level.