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解放运动永无止境——专访卢旺达共和国驻华大使查尔斯·卡勇加

民族解放的根本目标是赋予人民追求稳定,繁荣的幸福生活的权利。从这个层面上来说,解放运动永无止境。每一代人都应为追求人类的自由和平等付出相应的努力

文I 本刊记者 鲁门    翻译I 李丛    摄影I 鲁门

谈到民族解放的重要性,卢旺达极有发言权。20多年前,这个非洲小国经历了一场大屠杀浩劫。民族和解与国家统一后,卢旺达走上了一条快速发展的道路,不仅国泰民安,而且朝气蓬勃,在基础设施完善和通信科技服务两方面的成绩更是可圈可点。在第54个非洲日到来之际,本刊记者专访了卢旺达共和国驻华大使查尔斯·卡勇加先生。

 

《中国投资》:“非洲日”对非洲人民来说是个特殊的日子。请问您如何看待其背后的含义?

查尔斯·卡勇加:“非洲日”的确意义非凡,它使我们回顾解放运动的根本目标,检视我们取得的成就并规划未来。我们的先辈发动并投身于非洲大陆的解放运动,他们携手共进,互相扶持。我们对他们致以崇高的敬意。同样,后辈领导者们,包括当前的执政者们有责任延续解放运动的成果,带领这片大陆上的人民摆脱贫困、疾病、落后以及所有制约自由与发展的不良因素。从这个层面上来说,解放运动永无止境。每一代人都应为追求人类的自由和平等付出相应的努力。

 

《中国投资》: 卢旺达在非洲解放运动中起到了什么样的作用?

查尔斯·卡勇加:尽管一些卢旺达的独立运动领袖主张对旧秩序实行激进的改革,以实现国家的完全独立和可持续发展,但是很遗憾,独立后的卢旺达并没有促进非洲的发展,反而加速了这片大陆的苦难。独立后,为继续对卢旺达施加影响,殖民者扶植图西族成为傀儡政府。为确保政权的稳固,他们有计划地发动了大规模的屠杀,残害了数千图西族人,迫使更多的无辜者流亡海外。这使得卢旺达在独立后成为第一个针对本国人民展开大屠杀的非洲国家,是非洲最大的难民来源国。1994年针对图西族的种族屠杀是卢旺达独立初期有意实行的种族隔离政策最极致的体现。其它国家从独立初期的卢旺达身上只看到混乱的统治及其对卢旺达人民和人道主义带来的沉重伤害。

 

《中国投资》: 非洲大陆的解放运动对卢旺达的稳定,经济发展和民生起到了什么样的影响?

查尔斯·卡勇加:非洲大陆的解放运动对卢旺达起到了深刻的影响。

从不利的一面来看,独立后的政权分裂,试图颠覆国家独立的力量角逐引发了持续不断的暴力冲突。解放运动时期,领导独立战争的图西族君主被认为是像刚果(金)的帕特里斯·卢蒙巴(Patrice Lumumba)和坦桑尼亚的朱利叶斯·尼雷尔(Julius Nyerere)一样的民族主义者。他们的政治主张及彼此间紧密的联系使得殖民者将卢旺达的独立运动领袖,尤其是图西族领袖,当成共产主义者。因此他们支持更听命于他们的胡图族推翻了图西族的君主制政权。胡图族政府打压所谓的图西族共产主义者,采取了一系列贯彻种族灭绝理念的手段,包括禁止图西族人参于社会经济生活,实行恐怖袭击及大屠杀。1994年,当试图解放全国的卢旺达爱国阵线在战场上取得节节胜利之时,胡图族政府开始彻底实行种族灭绝政策。在接下来的几十年间有超过一百万的图西族人被残害,遇难者还包括数千名反对当权者杀戮行为的胡图族人。为彻底根除图西族,前政府还取消了有利于卢旺达爱国阵线党的选民政策,以进一步削弱其力量。

从有利的一面来看,卢旺达的解放者从非洲及其它地区的解放斗争中吸取了经验。尤其是那些在20世纪70、80年代流亡在东非国家的难民们。他们在协助莫桑比克、坦桑尼亚和乌干达的解放战争中坚定了决念,并取得了必要的军事训练与作战经验,使得他们能在时机成熟时最终夺取本国解放战争的胜利。卢旺达的全面解放经历了特殊的考验,比如针对图西族人的种族屠杀等。新政府强调文化根源,主张团结与民族和解,恢复了司法和社区服务体系,使我们的社会历经劫难后免于分崩离析。

民族解放的根本目标是赋予人民追求稳定,繁荣的幸福生活的权利。这也是1994年解放战争及图西族种族屠杀结束后,当权的保罗·卡加梅政府一直追求的目标。卢旺达在之后的23年中取得了很多成就。新政府采取了稳步的政治措施巩固民族和解与国家统一,确保了社会的稳定,从而进一步带动了商业的繁荣,促进了经济发展。这些成就使无数流亡在外的难民看到了希望,纷纷回国寻求发展。在卢旺达爱国阵线的领导下,今天的卢旺达享有前所未有的自由和独立。

 

《中国投资》:请问您如何看待如今中国和卢旺达的关系?对双边合作有何展望?

查尔斯·卡勇加:卢中建交已有46年,双边关系一直发展顺利。中国目前是卢旺达除东非外最大的贸易伙伴,双边贸易额在2013年达到2.43亿美元。其中卢对中进口1.34亿美元,出口也达到1.09亿美元。中国给予卢旺达出口到中国的97%的商品免关税待遇,我们的厂商们也在中国举办的各种展会上积极推广他们的商品,这些都促进了卢旺达出口贸易的增长。卢中双边合作是以强有力的政治关系为基础的。两国的执政党都以包含广大人民群众的,可持续的发展目标为根本。中国正致力于推动中非合作的升级版,帮助非洲大陆实现政治互信与经济融合。卢旺达目前政治稳定,投资环境良好,有利于两国进一步加深互利合作。这也是习近平主席与保罗·卡加梅总统2017年3月在北京会谈时的核心内容。


Liberation is a never ending process

——Interview Charles Kayonga, Rwanda Ambassador to China

Armene·G,China Investment ; Photo by Armene·G

China Investment :The AfricanLiberation Day is a special day to the African continent, how do you evaluatethe significance behind this day?

Charles Kayonga :The AfricanLiberation Day is indeed special in that it is an opportunity to reflect on thecore objectives of continental liberation, the progress that has been made, andto strategize on the way forward. We give tribute to the forefathers of AfricanLiberation for initiating this collective movement and committing themselves tosupport one another in the process. Consequent on this progressive trend, it isthe responsibility of successive generations of leaders, including those oftoday, to carry forward the struggle to liberate the continent from poverty,disease, backwardness, and other obstacles to freedom and development.Liberation is a never ending process and each generation is called tocontribute a fair share toward the goals of human freedom and rights.

 

China Investment :What kind ofrole that Rwanda played in Africa’s liberation movement?

Charles Kayonga :Althoughsome of Rwanda's pro-independence leaders were among the most radical reformersof the old order who advocated for genuine independence and sustainabledevelopment, post-independence Rwanda was one of the African countries that regrettablycontributed to Africa's woes rather than solutions. This was because atindependence, the colonial authorities raised to power a proxy Hutu elite groupas a way to perpetuate their hold on power and influence on the country. Inorder to ensure that their control over Rwanda was irreversible, the newleaders and their colonial masters initiated systematic massacres killingthousands of Tutsi and sending into exile tens of thousands others. Thus atindependence Rwanda became the first country on the continent to carry outlarge scale massacres against her own citizens and to cause the largest numberof refugees on the continent. Indeed, the genocide against the Tutsi of 1994was the climax of the deliberate terror and sectarian policies of the post-independenceperiod. Therefore, the legacy of independent Rwanda can only be misrule and itsconsequent harm on her citizens and humanity as a whole.

 

China Investment :How has theliberation movement across the African continent influenced the social stability,economic development and life of the people in Rwanda?

Charles Kayonga:Liberationmovements across Africa have had significant impact on Rwanda. First, on thenegative side, the post-independence divisive rule, the ensuing periodicmassacres was designed to subvert genuine independence. During the run up toindependence, the Tutsi monarch that was leading the struggle for independencein Rwanda was identified with nationalists such as Patrice Lumumba of the thenCongo-Zaire, and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania. Their nationalistic stance and therelationship with these leaders led the colonialists to brand the Rwandanindependence leaders, notably the Tutsi as communists. This is one of thereasons why the monarch in Rwanda was overthrown and power awarded to the Hutuwho were perceived as more loyal. The new government then instituted measuresto keep the so called communist Tutsi in check. This included instituting agenocide ideology characterized by alienating members of the Tutsi communityfrom participation in the social economic life of the country, terrorism andintermittent mass killings. In 1994, when the government was threatened withdefeat by the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) that sought to liberate the country,the decades long genocide strategy was unleashed killing more than one millionTutsi and thousands of Hutus that opposed the government killing agenda. Byattempting to exterminate the Tutsi, the former government of Rwanda’sobjective was to eliminate a constituency perceived as supportive of the RPFand thereby undermine the liberation efforts.

On the positive side, Rwanda’s liberationcan be said to be a hybrid of liberation experiences including those on thecontinent of Africa and beyond. It is while as refugees in East Africancountries in the 1970s and 80s, that those who would later liberate Rwandaformed their ideas of liberation. Their military training and combat experiencewas gained alongside freedom fighters in countries such as Mozambique, Tanzaniaand Uganda. This foundation was invaluable in preparing Rwandans for their ownliberation effort when the time came. The liberation of Rwanda itselfencountered unique challenges such as the genocide against the Tutsi. However,the society was protected from the grave effects of such a calamity byresorting to the fundamentals of its culture and values of unity andreconciliation, restorative justice and community service.

The objective of liberation is to empowerpeople to achieve social stability, economic development, and wellbeing. Sincethe liberation of Rwanda and the stopping the genocide against the Tutsi in1994, the leadership of Rwanda under H.E Paul Kagame has sought to do this. Alot has been achieved in the last twenty three years. Rwanda enjoys stabilitythat ensues from a progressive political agenda that fosters unity andreconciliation. Stability favors doing business, which turn is contributing toeconomic development. The political and economic situation in Rwanda and thehope it creates has appealed to hundreds of thousands of Rwandan refugees inexile to return home, bringing to the minimum the numbers of refugees livingoutside the country. Rwanda today, more than at any other point in history, issteadily on the course for genuine liberation and independence, thanks to theRPF and its leadership.

 

China Investment :What's yourtake on the current relations between China and Rwanda? What are the futureprospects of bilateral cooperation?

Charles Kayonga:Rwandaestablished diplomatic cooperation with China forty six years ago and therelations between the two countries remain excellent. China is Rwanda’s largesttrading partners after East Africa with the trade value between the twocountries in 2013 reaching 243 million USD, consisting of 134 million inimports from China and 109 million exports from Rwanda. In order to assistRwanda's exports, China established a duty-free policy on 95% of Rwandanproducts while Rwandan companies continue to promote their products at variousbusiness fairs in China. The cooperation between Rwanda and China are foundedon strong Party to Party relations given the ruling Party’s roots in liberationand their focus on inclusive and sustainable development. Today, as Chinaupgrades her support to Africa to achieve economic and political integration ofthe continent, Rwanda’s stability and excellent business environmental presentsa pull factor for deeper partnership in this win-win cooperation. This was inessence the spirit of the meeting between President Paul Kagame and his host XiJinping in Beijing in March 2017.