您做在的位置: 中国投资 > 封面故事 > 富民强国之作——专访肯尼亚国家铁路局局…

富民强国之作——专访肯尼亚国家铁路局局长马伊纳(AK Maina)

目前,肯尼亚已经与乌干达、卢旺达及南苏丹达成并批准了一项标轨铁路协议,确保蒙内铁路延长线在各国境内段的建设及无缝链接

文I 本刊特邀记者  万丽眸[肯尼亚]   翻译I 李丛

铁路作为国家重要基础设施、国民经济大动脉和大众化交通工具,在经济社会发展中扮演着重要的角色。此前,由于肯尼亚米轨铁路设计标准低,在历经百年之后老化严重,且长期处于年久失修状态,蒙巴萨到内罗毕之间的线路,要耗费15个小时甚至更久。蒙内铁路建成后,两座城市之间的运输时间将缩减到4个多小时,极大提升客货运效率。日前,肯尼亚国家铁路局局长马伊纳接受了本刊专访。

 

《中国投资》:蒙内铁路提前六个月开通,对中国铁路建设的质量您有何评价?

马伊纳:根据肯尼亚国家铁路公司与中国路桥工程有限责任公司签订的商业合同,蒙内铁路2014年12月开工,60个月内交付使用。2017年5月31日,蒙内铁路不仅提前18个月投入使用,同时由于中国路桥经验丰富,使铁路建设保持了高水准,细节方面也是精益求精。

 

《中国投资》:蒙内铁路此次采用中国标准轨道,与旧的米轨铁路相比,会对肯尼亚将来的铁路建设带来怎样影响?

马伊纳:我们知道中国仍然在持续建造铁路并运营中、高速铁路,因此,中国铁路建设和运营的标准可以说是世界上最先进的。肯尼亚已经在同中国公司合作,力争在全国范围内覆盖铁路网络。中国公司已经对我们提出的3000公里铁路线路图进行了可行性研究。肯尼亚国家铁路公司认为蒙内铁路质量一流,期待与中国公司合作开展其他标准轨铁路工程的建设。

《中国投资》:在您看来,蒙内铁路的修建中,中国路桥对当地的参建企业产生了什么影响?

马伊纳:蒙内铁路的建设一方面给行业引入了新的建设方法,同时也帮助当地工业企业提高了产品质量,尤其是蒙内铁路建设过程中使用的钢筋和水泥的质量。这两种产品的承包商与制造商都不断地提高产品质量以达到蒙内铁路建设的标准。建设蒙内铁路使用的水泥全部都是当地生产的。

 

《中国投资》:我们都知道蒙内铁路线未来还将延伸到其它非洲国家。到目前为止,肯尼亚和哪些非洲国家,尤其是东非国家签订了新的相关合作项目?

马伊纳:目前,肯尼亚已经与乌干达、卢旺达及南苏丹达成并批准了一项标轨铁路协议,确保蒙内铁路延长线在各国境内段的建设及无缝链接。与此同时,这四个国家也成立了一个技术委员会,定期考核项目进度。

⬆2017年 6月9日,乘客乘坐蒙内铁路列车从内罗毕前往蒙巴萨

 

《中国投资》:肯尼亚当地人如何评价蒙内铁路的建成?整个项目预计能惠及多少当地人口?

马伊纳:尽管蒙内铁路运营时日尚短,但已经受到肯尼亚人极大的欢迎,周末的上座率达到100%(由于运力所限,运营商不得不拒绝500多人的购票请求),而且工作日的上座率也达到将近70%。肯尼亚铁路局预计这种火爆的状态还将持续下去。整个铁路线的运营能直接或间接地给沿线地区创造至少7000个工作岗位。供应链的外包也将带来更多的就业机会。外包的服务包括安保、环境管理及各种供给服务,包括餐饮。

 

《中国投资》:在您看来,蒙内铁路对肯尼亚整体经济有哪些拉动?

马伊纳:蒙内铁路的建成为肯尼亚交通大动脉的形成奠定了基础。这条大动脉将促进肯尼亚经济增长,社会进步并实现我们的2030年远景规划。蒙内铁路还将帮助肯尼亚商品,尤其是农产品开通国内市场并打进国际市场。可以说,它将影响肯尼亚的城镇化进程并因此带动商业领域的发展。

受雇于这个工程的当地人已经感受到了这种影响——钢材、水泥、电缆、砂石料以及输电塔的需求量激增,还有为铁路工人提供医疗、安保、娱乐等服务的各行各业。另外,铁路建设人员也学习到了新技能,这对国家人才储备将产生积极影响。

 

《中国投资》:您认为目前肯尼亚交通领域有哪些项目值得中国投资者关注?

马伊纳:肯尼亚的发展规划包括在基苏木维多利亚湖新建一个大规模吞吐量的港口。维多利亚湖连接了肯尼亚、乌干达和坦桑尼亚三个国家,开发客运和货运服务潜力巨大,值得中国投资者关注。此外,蒙内铁路将形成串联区域内发展的“新走廊”。中国投资者应充分利用这一优势,在沿线打造综合性的工业园区和经济区。我们也欢迎中国资本参与更多连通偏远地区(尤其是肯尼亚北部)的公路、铁路项目,将这些地区滞留的煤、铁、石灰岩、氟石和原油等资源充分地开发出来。另外,在肯尼亚的一些像内罗毕、蒙巴萨和基苏木这样的主要城市里,道路交通问题持续不断。建议中国投资者可以考虑在这些地区发展和运营轻轨网络。


SGR Raises Kenyan Prospects for Development and Interconnectivity

——Interview AK Maina, Managing Director of Kenya Railwalys

By Anne Wairimu Wanjau, a special correspondent in Beijing

China Investment: This Railway was opened 6months earlier than the predicted time, how would you evaluate ChineseConstruction quality?

AK Maina: The correct position is that theCommercial Agreement signed between Kenya Railways and CRBC for the developmentof the Mombasa – Nairobi SGR estimated the delivery timeline at 60 months fromthe start of the constructions in December, 2014. With the Railway in operationfrom 31-05-17 it means it has been delivered 18 months ahead of time withoutcompromising the quality of workmanship and also paying meticulous attention todetails thanks to CRBC experience.

 

China Investment: This Railway was builtusing New Chinese standards. In comparison to the old standards, whatimplications does this have for the future of construction in Kenyan?

AK Maina: We are aware that China is one ofthe countries that is still building many kilometres of new railways andoperating similarly many kilometres of medium and high speed railways. TheChinese Standards for the building and operation of railways are thereforeconsidered to be the most modern in the World. Kenya is already working withChinese companies to expand its railway network to cover the entire country.Already Chinese companies have undertaken Feasibility Studies on some 3,000kilometres of proposed lines within the Country. Kenya Railways considers theMombasa – Nairobi SGR product high quality and is looking forward to work withChinese Companies for the remaining SGR projects.

 

China Investment: During the RailwayConstruction, what impact did CRBC have on the local construction industry?

AK Maina: Apart from introducing new construction methods in the industry, SGRconstruction has also helped local industries to improve on the quality oftheir products particularly steels and cement that were used in the SGRconstruction. In both cases the contractor worked with the manufacturers toimprove the quality of the products to meet the required SGR specification. Inthe case of cement all SGR requirement was sourced locally.

 

China Investment: So far, are there any newcooperation agreements between Kenya and other African countries? Especially inthe EAC region.

AK Maina: The four countries of Kenya,Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan have signed and ratified the STANDARD GAUGERAILWAY PROTOCOL for the joint development and subsequent seamless operation ofthe SGR within their countries and across their borders. In the meantime thefour countries have formed a technical committee that meets regularly toprogress the SGR development in the region.

 

China Investment: What has been theresponse of locals to the completion of the railway ?

AK Maina: The railway has been in operationfor only a few days, but even during that time it has received a lot of supportwith 100% occupancy (the operator had to turn away more than 500 people due tolack of capacity) over the weekends and close to 70% occupancy for other days.Kenya Railways expects the trend to continue. During the operations we expectat least 7,000 locals to be employed directly and indirectly in contracts forthe supply chain. Such contracts will provide security, environmentalmanagement and supply of various inputs including provisions.

 

China Investment: What is the impact of theSGR on the Economy?

AK Maina: The SGR is the foundation for anefficient transport corridor that is expected to boost economic growth,development and achievement of Kenya’s Vision 2030. The SGR is expected to openup the interior and provide access to overseas markets for Kenyan goods,especially in the agricultural sector. The railway line also has implicationsfor urbanization and thus leading to growth in the business sector. Already,its impact is being felt by the many local people who were employed on thisproject. Both individuals and SMEs benefit from the construction, increasingdemand for steel, cement, cables, aggregates and electricity pylons. Theservice providing sector has also not been left out since services such ashealthcare, security and entertainment are being provided to SGR workers.Furthermore, technological transfer with the new skills acquired by theindividuals working in the construction will have a positive impact on humandevelopment indicators. 

 

China Investment: After One Road One BeltSummit, what other transportation fields should Chinese investors be focusedon?

AK Maina: The SGR development in Kenyaincludes the development of a new high capacity port at Kisumu on LakeVictoria. The lake connects the three countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzaniaand there is potential for developing both passenger and freight serviceswithin the lake, which should interest Chinese Investors. In addition, theChinese Investors may take advantage of the SGR development to set upcomprehensive Industrial Parks and Economic Zones along the corridor throughoutthe region to manufacture transport vehicles. Chinese Investors are alsoencouraged to build roads and railways that would open up remote parts of thecountry (particularly in the North)  forthe exploitation of stranded resources such as coal, iron ore, limestone,fluorspar, and crude oil. Further, Chinese Investors may take an interest inthe development and operation of commuter / light rail systems within andaround the major cities in Kenya including Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu, whichcurrent suffer from perennial traffic jams on the roads.